643 research outputs found

    Properties of Heavy Secondary Fluorine Cosmic Rays:Results from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer

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    Precise knowledge of the charge and rigidity dependence of the secondary cosmic ray fluxes and the secondary-to-primary flux ratios is essential in the understanding of cosmic ray propagation. We report the properties of heavy secondary cosmic ray fluorine F in the rigidity R range 2.15 GV to 2.9 TV based on 0.29 million events collected by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment on the International Space Station. The fluorine spectrum deviates from a single power law above 200 GV. The heavier secondary-to-primary F/Si flux ratio rigidity dependence is distinctly different from the lighter B/O (or B/C) rigidity dependence. In particular, above 10 GV, the F//Si B /O ratio can be described by a power law Rδ with δ =0.052 ±0.007 . This shows that the propagation properties of heavy cosmic rays, from F to Si, are different from those of light cosmic rays, from He to O, and that the secondary cosmic rays have two classes

    Properties of Cosmic Helium Isotopes Measured by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer

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    Precision measurements by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) on the International Space Station of He 3 and He 4 fluxes are presented. The measurements are based on 100 million He 4 nuclei in the rigidity range from 2.1 to 21 GV and 18 million He 3 from 1.9 to 15 GV collected from May 2011 to November 2017. We observed that the He 3 and He 4 fluxes exhibit nearly identical variations with time. The relative magnitude of the variations decreases with increasing rigidity. The rigidity dependence of the He 3 /He 4 flux ratio is measured for the first time. Below 4 GV, the He 3 /He 4 flux ratio was found to have a significant long-term time dependence. Above 4 GV, the He 3 /He 4 flux ratio was found to be time independent, and its rigidity dependence is well described by a single power law ∝RΔ with Δ =-0.294 ±0.004 . Unexpectedly, this value is in agreement with the B/O and B/C spectral indices at high energies

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) on the international space station:Part II - Results from the first seven years

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    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a precision particle physics detector on the International Space Station (ISS) conducting a unique, long-duration mission of fundamental physics research in space. The physics objectives include the precise studies of the origin of dark matter, antimatter, and cosmic rays as well as the exploration of new phenomena. Following a 16-year period of construction and testing, and a precursor flight on the Space Shuttle, AMS was installed on the ISS on May 19, 2011. In this report we present results based on 120 billion charged cosmic ray events up to multi-TeV energies. This includes the fluxes of positrons, electrons, antiprotons, protons, and nuclei. These results provide unexpected information, which cannot be explained by the current theoretical models. The accuracy and characteristics of the data, simultaneously from many different types of cosmic rays, provide unique input to the understanding of origins, acceleration, and propagation of cosmic rays

    Search for supersymmetry in events with opposite-sign dileptons and missing transverse energy using an artificial neural network

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    In this paper, a search for supersymmetry (SUSY) is presented in events with two opposite-sign isolated leptons in the final state, accompanied by hadronic jets and missing transverse energy. An artificial neural network is employed to discriminate possible SUSY signals from a standard model background. The analysis uses a data sample collected with the CMS detector during the 2011 LHC run, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.98  fb-1 of proton-proton collisions at the center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. Compared to other CMS analyses, this one uses relaxed criteria on missing transverse energy (E̸T>40  GeV) and total hadronic transverse energy (HT>120  GeV), thus probing different regions of parameter space. Agreement is found between standard model expectation and observations, yielding limits in the context of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model and on a set of simplified model

    KM3NeT front-end and readout electronics system: hardware, firmware, and software

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    [EN] The KM3NeT research infrastructure being built at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea will host water-Cherenkov telescopes for the detection of cosmic neutrinos. The neutrino telescopes will consist of large volume three-dimensional grids of optical modules to detect the Cherenkov light from charged particles produced by neutrino-induced interactions. Each optical module houses 31 3-in. photomultiplier tubes, instrumentation for calibration of the photomultiplier signal and positioning of the optical module, and all associated electronics boards. By design, the total electrical power consumption of an optical module has been capped at seven Watts. We present an overview of the front-end and readout electronics system inside the optical module, which has been designed for a 1-ns synchronization between the clocks of all optical modules in the grid during a life time of at least 20 years.The authors acknowledge financial support from the funding agencies: Agence Nationale de la Recherche (Grant No. ANR-15-CE31-0020), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Commission Europeenne (FEDER fund and Marie Curie Program), Institut Universitaire de France (IUF), IdEx program and UnivEarthS Labex program at Sorbonne Paris Cite (Grant Nos. ANR-10-LABX-0023 and ANR-11-IDEX-0005-02), Paris Ile-de-France Region, France; Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia (SRNSFG, Grant No. FR-18-1268), Georgia; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), Germany; The General Secretariat of Research and Technology (GSRT), Greece; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Universita e della Ricerca (MIUR), PRIN 2017 program (Grant NAT-NET 2017W4HA7S) Italy; Ministry of Higher Education, Scientific Research and Professional Training, Morocco; Nederlandse organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO), the Netherlands; The National Science Centre, Poland (2015/18/E/ST2/00758); National Authority for Scientific Research (ANCS), Romania; Plan Estatal de Investigacion [refs. FPA2015-65150-C3-1-P, -2-P and -3-P, (MINECO/FEDER)], Severo Ochoa Centre of Excellence program (MINECO), Red Consolider MultiDark (ref. FPA2017-90566-REDC, MINECO), and Prometeo and Grisolia programs (Generalitat Valenciana), "la Caixa" Foundation (ID 100010434) through the fellowship LCF/BQ/IN17/11620019, and the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie Grant Agreement No. 713673, Spain.Aiello, S.; Ameli, F.; Andre, M.; Androulakis, G.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid Ramírez, M.... (2019). KM3NeT front-end and readout electronics system: hardware, firmware, and software. Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems. 5(4):1-15. https://doi.org/10.1117/1.JATIS.5.4.046001S1155

    Performance studies of the final prototype for the CASTOR forward calorimeter at the CMS experiment

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    We present performance results of the final prototype for the CASTOR quartz-tungsten sampling calorimeter, to be installed in the very forward region of the CMS experiment at the LHC. The energy linearity and resolution, the uniformity, as well as the spatial resolution of the prototype to electromagnetic and hadronic showers are studied with E=E= 10--200 GeV electrons, E=E= 20--350 GeV pions, and E=E= 50, 150 GeV muons in beam tests carried out at CERN/SPS in 2007

    Search for narrow resonances using the dijet mass spectrum in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV

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    Results are presented of a search for the production of new particles decaying to pairs of partons (quarks, antiquarks, or gluons), in the dijet mass spectrum in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 4.0 inverse femtobarns, collected with the CMS detector at the LHC in 2012. No significant evidence for narrow resonance production is observed. Upper limits are set at the 95% confidence level on the production cross section of hypothetical new particles decaying to quark-quark, quark-gluon, or gluon-gluon final states. These limits are then translated into lower limits on the masses of new resonances in specific scenarios of physics beyond the standard model. The limits reach up to 4.8 TeV, depending on the model, and extend previous exclusions from similar searches performed at lower collision energies. For the first time mass limits are set for the Randall-Sundrum graviton model in the dijet channel

    Determination of the top-quark pole mass and strong coupling constant from the ttbar production cross section in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

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    The inclusive cross section for top-quark pair production measured by the CMS experiment in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is compared to the QCD prediction at next-to-next-to-leading order with various parton distribution functions to determine the top-quark pole mass, mtpolem_t^{pole}, or the strong coupling constant, αS\alpha_S. With the parton distribution function set NNPDF2.3, a pole mass of 176.7−2.8+3.0^{+3.0}_{-2.8} GeV is obtained when constraining αS\alpha_S at the scale of the Z boson mass, mZm_Z, to the current world average. Alternatively, by constraining mtpolem_t^{pole} to the latest average from direct mass measurements, a value of αS(mZ)\alpha_S(m_Z) = 0.1151−0.0027+0.0028^{+0.0028}_{-0.0027} is extracted. This is the first determination of αS\alpha_S using events from top-quark production

    Transverse momentum spectra of b jets in pPb collisions at sqrt(s[NN]) = 5.02 TeV

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    We present a measurement of b jet transverse momentum (pt) spectra in proton-lead (pPb) collisions using a dataset corresponding to about 35 inverse nanobarns collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. Jets from b quark fragmentation are found by exploiting the long lifetime of hadrons containing a b quark through tagging methods using distributions of the secondary vertex mass and displacement. Extracted cross sections for b jets are scaled by the effective number of nucleon-nucleon collisions and are compared to a reference obtained from PYTHIA simulations of pp collisions. The PYTHIA-based estimate of the nuclear modification factor is found to be 1.22 +/- 0.15 (stat + syst pPb) +/- 0.27 (syst PYTHIA) averaged over all jets with pt between 55 and 400 GeV/c and with abs(eta[lab]) < 2. We also compare this result to predictions from models using perturbative calculations in quantum chromodynamics
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