72 research outputs found

    Gender and poverty: how we can be misled by the unitary model of household resources – the case of Tajikistan

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    Using the 2003 Tajikistan Living Standard Survey this paper looks at the relationship between gender and poverty and show how, by modifying the equal sharing assumption of the household resources, we can easily be misled by the poverty and gender relationship. This paper also shows how those gender analyses which use the female headed household and male headed household dichotomy in Tajikistan obscure the gender analysis of poverty due to the heterogeneity of female headed household types

    Creating a poverty map for Azerbaijan

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    'Poverty maps' - graphic representations of spatially disaggregated estimates of welfare - are increasingly used to geographically target scare resources. But their development in many low resource settings is hampered due to data constraints. Data on income or consumption are often unavailable or direct survey estimates for small areas yield unacceptably large standard errors. Census data offer the required level of coverage but do not generally contain appropriate information. Alternative methods aim either at combining survey data with unit record data from the Census to produce estimates of income or expenditure for small areas or at developing alternative welfare rankings, such as asset indices, using existing census data. This paper develops a set of poverty maps for Azerbaijan. Two alternative approaches are adopted. First, a map is constructed using an asset index based on data from the 1999 Census to produce reliable estimates of welfare at the raion level. Second, an alternative map is derived using imputed household consumption, combining information from the 2002 Household Budget Survey (HBS) with 1999 Census data. This provides a unique opportunity to compare the welfare rankings obtained at the regional level under the two approaches

    Staying in school: assessing the role of access, availability and cost

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    This paper investigates the role of contextual factors outside the household in determining whether or not a child attends basic education in Tajikistan. By combining data from the Tajikistan Living Standard Survey with data from a parallel community survey, aggregated census data at the jamoat (village) level, and spatial data, a series of variables are constructed which characterize the environment where the child lives. These variables serve as proxies for the accessibility and availability of school services, quality of education, opportunity cost of education in terms of the opportunities for income generating activities forgone, and level of economic development in the communities. Applying multilevel modelling techniques, the results show that contextual factors have a strong effect on school attendance. Accessibility of service and higher quality of school have a positive effect, however a high opportunity cost to education in a community exerts a negative effect on school attendance

    Ethnic differences in transition to first marriage in Iran

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    This paper, using data from the 2000 Iran Demographic and Health Survey and a range of time-varying district-level contextual information derived from the 1986 and 1996 censuses of Iran, applies a discrete time hazard model to study ethnic differences in women’s transition to first marriage. The model specification accounts for both spatial and temporal changes in the socio-economic context of transition to marriage. We found ethnic-specific responses on women’s marriage timing to changes in the socio-economic context between the mid 1970s and 2000. Some ethnic groups appear to be more resistant to change despite sharing similar changes in their socio-economic context.development, education, ethnicity, Iran, marriage, marriage market, women status

    The proximate determinants of fertility and birth intervals in Egypt

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    In this paper we use calendar data from the 2000 Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) to assess the determinants of birth interval length among women who are in union. We make use of the well-known model of the proximate determinants of fertility, and take advantage of the fact that the DHS calendar data provide month-by-month data on contraceptive use, breastfeeding and post-partum amenorrhoea, which are the most important proximate determinants among women in union. One aim of the analysis is to see whether the calendar data are sufficiently detailed to account for all variation among individual women in birth interval duration, in that once they are controlled, the effect of background social, economic and cultural variables is not statistically significant. The results suggest that this is indeed the case, especially after a random effect term to account for the unobserved proximate determinants is included in the model. Birth intervals are determined mainly by the use of modern methods of contraception (the IUD being more effective than the pill). Breastfeeding and post-partum amenorrhoea both inhibit conception, and the effect of breastfeeding remains even after the period of amenorrhoea has ended.calendar data, contraceptive use, Egypt, fertility, proximate determinants, survival analysis

    Creating a Poverty Map for Azerbaijan

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    "Poverty maps"-that is, graphic representations of spatially disaggregated estimates of welfare-are being increasingly used to geographically target scarce resources. But the development of detailed poverty maps in many low resource settings is hampered because of data constraints. Data on income or consumption are often unavailable and, where they are, direct survey estimates for small areas are likely to yield unacceptably large standard errors due to limited sample sizes. Census data offer the required level of coverage but do not generally contain the appropriate information. This has led to the development of a range of alternative methods aimed either at combining survey data with unit record data from the census to produce estimates of income or expenditure for small areas or at developing alternative welfare rankings, such as asset indices, using existing census data. This paper develops a set of poverty maps for Azerbaijan that can be used by different users. Two alternative approaches to the measurement and mapping of welfare are adopted. First, a map is derived using imputed household consumption. This involves combining information from the 2002 Household Budget Survey (HBS) with 1999 census data. Second, an alternative map is constructed using an asset index based on data from the 1999 census to produce estimates of welfare at the rayon level. This provides a unique opportunity to compare the welfare rankings obtained at the regional level under the two alternative approaches. In order to visually present the spatially disgaggregated estimates of welfare in Azerbaijan, this paper has also produced a digital census map of Azerbaijan. This involved matching the census enumeration areas to a digital settlement map of Azerbaijan. Therefore, it is now possible for the State Statistical Committee of Azerbaijan to display graphically the results of the 1999 census of Azerbaijan along with other data.Rural Poverty Reduction,Economic Theory&Research,Poverty Lines,Poverty Diagnostics,Technology Industry

    Hunger and Food Insecurity in Nairobi's Slums: An assessment using IRT models'

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    Although linked to poverty as conditions reflecting inadequate access to resources to obtain food, issues such as hunger and food insecurity have seldom been recognized as important in urban settings. Overall, little is known about the prevalence and magnitude of hunger and food insecurity in most cities. Yet, in sub-Saharan Africa where the majority of urban dwellers live on less than one dollar a day, it is obvious a large proportion of the urban population must be satisfied with just one meal a day. This paper suggests using the one- and two-parameter item response theory (IRT) models to infer a reliable and valid measure of hunger and food insecurity relevant to low income urban settings, drawing evidence from the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS). The reliability and accuracy of the items are tested using both the Mokken Scale Analysis and the Cronbach test. The validity of the inferred household food insecurity measure is assessed by examining how it is associated with households? economic status. Results show that food insecurity is pervasive amongst slum dwellers in Nairobi. Only one household in five is food secure, and nearly half of all households are categorized as ?food insecure with both adult and child hunger?. Moreover, in line with what is known about household allocation of resources, evidence indicates that parents often forego food in order to prioritize their children. (229 words)Food insecurity; Hunger; Sub-Saharan Africa; Slum; Nairobi

    Inequalities in Human Well-Being in the Urban Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna Delta

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    The recently endorsed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) agenda unanimously agrees on the need to focus on inclusive development, the importance of eradicating extreme poverty and managing often complex human well-being impacts of rapid urban growth. Sustainable and inclusive urbanisation will accelerate progress towards the SDGs and contribute to eradicating extreme poverty. In tropical delta regions, such as the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna delta region, urban growth and resulting intra-urban inequalities are accelerated by the impact of environmental and climate change. In this context, the present study uses the 2010 Household Income and Expenditure Survey to analyse the extent of wealth-based inequalities in human well-being in the urban delta region and the determinants of selected welfare measures. The results suggest that the extent of intra-urban inequalities is greatest in educational attainment and access to postnatal healthcare and relatively low in the occurrence of gastric disease. The paper concludes by providing policy recommendations to reduce increasing wealth inequalities in urban areas, thus contributing to sustainable development of the region

    Fertility intentions and use of contraception among monogamous couples in northern Malawi in the context of HIV testing: a cross-sectional analysis.

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    CONTEXT: Knowledge of HIV status may influence fertility desires of married men and women. There is little knowledge about the importance of this influence among monogamously married couples and how knowledge of HIV status influences use of contraception among these couples. METHODOLOGY: We carried out a cross-sectional analysis of interview data collected between October 2008 and September 2009 on men aged 15-59 years and women aged 15-49 years who formed 1766 monogamously married couples within the Karonga Prevention Study demographic surveillance study in northern Malawi. RESULTS: 5% of men and 4% of women knew that they were HIV positive at the time of interview and 81% of men and 89% of women knew that they were HIV negative. 73% of men and 83% of women who knew that they were HIV positive stated that they did not want more children, compared to 35% of men and 38% of women who knew they were HIV negative. Concordant HIV positive couples were more likely than concordant negative couples to desire to stop child bearing (odds ratio 11.5, 95%CI 4.3-30.7, after adjusting for other factors) but only slightly more likely to use contraceptives (adjusted odds ratio 1.5 (95%CI 0.8-3.3). CONCLUSION: Knowledge of HIV positive status is associated with an increase in the reported desire to cease childbearing but there was limited evidence that this desire led to higher use of contraception. More efforts directed towards assisting HIV positive couples to access and use reproductive health services and limit HIV transmission among couples are recommended

    Every Newborn INDEPTH (EN-INDEPTH) Study - Additional Materials

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    The Every Newborn- International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health (EN-INDEPTH) study was a cross-sectional, multi-site study conducted between July 2017 and August 2018, including a survey of 69,176 women aged 15-49 years in five Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites (HDSS) within the INDEPTH Network: Bandim in Guinea-Bissau, Dabat in Ethiopia, IgangaMayuge in Uganda, Matlab in Bangladesh and Kintampo in Ghana. The primary objective of the study was to compare two methods of retrospective recording of pregnancy outcomes in surveys: Full Birth History with additional questions on pregnancy losses (FBH+), and Full Pregnancy History (FPH). A secondary objective was to identify barriers and enablers to the reporting of pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes during the survey and HDSS data collection, and particularly if these differ for the two survey questionnaire methods (FBH+ and FPH). The study also evaluated the use of existing/modified survey questions to capture the fertility intentions and selected pregnancy outcomes (Termination of Pregnancy, miscarriage, birthweight, gestational age), and birth and death certification
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