1,135 research outputs found

    Undulation Instability of Epithelial Tissues

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    Treating the epithelium as an incompressible fluid adjacent to a viscoelastic stroma, we find a novel hydrodynamic instability that leads to the formation of protrusions of the epithelium into the stroma. This instability is a candidate for epithelial fingering observed in vivo. It occurs for sufficiently large viscosity, cell-division rate and thickness of the dividing region in the epithelium. Our work provides physical insight into a potential mechanism by which interfaces between epithelia and stromas undulate, and potentially by which tissue dysplasia leads to cancerous invasion.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figure

    Security methods for a group of mobile robots according to the requirements of Russian and foreign legislation

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    This paper is devoted to the problem of creating security methods for mobile robotic systems. The urgency of the problem of ensuring the security of mobile robotic systems is associated with the presence of a contradiction between the growing popularity of the mobile robotic systems and the presence of many vulnerabilitie

    Teratogenic risk and contraceptive counselling in psychiatric practice: analysis of anticonvulsant therapy

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    <p>Background: Anticonvulsants have been used to manage psychiatric conditions for over 50 years. It is recognised that some, particularly valproate, carbamazepine and lamotrigine, are human teratogens, while others including topiramate require further investigation. We aimed to appraise the documentation of this risk by psychiatrists and review discussion around contraceptive issues.</p> <p>Methods: A retrospective review of prescribing patterns of four anticonvulsants (valproate, carbamazepine, lamotrigine and topiramate) in women of child bearing age was undertaken. Documented evidence of discussion surrounding teratogenicity and contraceptive issues was sought.</p> <p>Results: Valproate was most commonly prescribed (n=67). Evidence of teratogenic risk counselling at medication initiation was sub-optimal ‚Äď 40% of individuals prescribed carbamazepine and 22% of valproate. Documentation surrounding contraceptive issues was also low- 17% of individuals prescribed carbamazepine and 13% of valproate.</p> <p>Conclusion: We found both low rates of teratogenic risk counselling and low rates of contraception advice in our cohort. Given the high rates of unplanned pregnancies combined with the relatively high risk of major congenital malformations, it is essential that a detailed appraisal of the risks and benefits associated with anticonvulsant medication occurs and is documented within patients‚Äô psychiatric notes.</p&gt

    Colloquium: Mechanical formalisms for tissue dynamics

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    The understanding of morphogenesis in living organisms has been renewed by tremendous progressin experimental techniques that provide access to cell-scale, quantitative information both on theshapes of cells within tissues and on the genes being expressed. This information suggests that ourunderstanding of the respective contributions of gene expression and mechanics, and of their crucialentanglement, will soon leap forward. Biomechanics increasingly benefits from models, which assistthe design and interpretation of experiments, point out the main ingredients and assumptions, andultimately lead to predictions. The newly accessible local information thus calls for a reflectionon how to select suitable classes of mechanical models. We review both mechanical ingredientssuggested by the current knowledge of tissue behaviour, and modelling methods that can helpgenerate a rheological diagram or a constitutive equation. We distinguish cell scale ("intra-cell")and tissue scale ("inter-cell") contributions. We recall the mathematical framework developpedfor continuum materials and explain how to transform a constitutive equation into a set of partialdifferential equations amenable to numerical resolution. We show that when plastic behaviour isrelevant, the dissipation function formalism appears appropriate to generate constitutive equations;its variational nature facilitates numerical implementation, and we discuss adaptations needed in thecase of large deformations. The present article gathers theoretical methods that can readily enhancethe significance of the data to be extracted from recent or future high throughput biomechanicalexperiments.Comment: 33 pages, 20 figures. This version (26 Sept. 2015) contains a few corrections to the published version, all in Appendix D.2 devoted to large deformation

    Homeostatic competition drives tumor growth and metastasis nucleation

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    We propose a mechanism for tumor growth emphasizing the role of homeostatic regulation and tissue stability. We show that competition between surface and bulk effects leads to the existence of a critical size that must be overcome by metastases to reach macroscopic sizes. This property can qualitatively explain the observed size distributions of metastases, while size-independent growth rates cannot account for clinical and experimental data. In addition, it potentially explains the observed preferential growth of metastases on tissue surfaces and membranes such as the pleural and peritoneal layers, suggests a mechanism underlying the seed and soil hypothesis introduced by Stephen Paget in 1889 and yields realistic values for metastatic inefficiency. We propose a number of key experiments to test these concepts. The homeostatic pressure as introduced in this work could constitute a quantitative, experimentally accessible measure for the metastatic potential of early malignant growths.Comment: 13 pages, 11 figures, to be published in the HFSP Journa

    Dextran and its potential use as tablet excipient

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    Dextrans are a class of carbohydrate polymers extensively applied in pharmaceutical applications, particularly as drug conjugate macromolecular carriers or drug delivery systems. These polysaccharides improve the stability of the therapeutics enabling also the control of their release, via either the parenteral and or oral routes. In the latter case, due to their gel forming ability they may have potential as hydrophilic matrix tablets for sustained drug release. In this paper, we investigated the behaviour of different molecular weight (1, 40, 500 and 2300 kDa) dextrans as tabletting excipients. Powder particle size and hygroscopic studies have been reported, together with tabletability, tablet stability and tablet swelling. Moreover we use tramadol as model compound to evaluate the ability of dextrans to control drug dissolution. The results suggest that dextrans with lower molecular weights may be a promising excipient to be used as filler for immediate release tablets, due to their good tabletability and fast dissolution rate, while dextrans with higher molecular weights could be an efficient disintegrant due to their swelling ability

    Developing models of IoT infrastructures to identify vulnerabilities and analyse threats

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    This article describes the developing stands of typical IoT infrastructure Technologies, which are designed to identify vulnerabilities and analyse potential threats. Scenarios of attacks typical for such systems have been developed, and the consequences of implementing attacks have been determined. Attacker can use the developed scenarios, been motivated by different goal

    Socio-economic impact of Foot-and-Mouth Disease outbreaks and control measures:An analysis of Mongolian outbreaks in 2017

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    Mongolia is a large landlocked country in central Asia and has one of the highest per capita livestock ratios in the world. During 2017 reported Foot and Mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in Mongolia increased considerably, prompting widespread disease control measures. This study estimates the socio‚Äźeconomic impact of FMD and subsequent control measures on Mongolian herders. The analysis encompassed quantification of the impact on subsistence farmers‚Äô livelihoods and food security and estimation of the national level gross losses due to reaction and expenditure during 2017. Data were collected from 112 herders across eight Provinces that reported disease. Seventy of these herders had cases of FMD, while 42 did not have FMD in their animals but were within quarantine zones. Overall, 86/112 herders reported not drinking milk for a period of time and 38/112 reduced their meat consumption. Furthermore, 55 herders (49.1%) had to borrow money to buy food, medicines and/or pay bills or bank loans. Among herders with FMD cases, the median attack rate was 31.7%, 3.8% and 0.59% in cattle, sheep and goats respectively, with important differences across Provinces. Herders with clinical cases before the winter had higher odds of reporting a reduction in their meat consumption. National level gross losses due to FMD in 2017 were estimated using government data. The estimate of gross economic loss was 18.4 billion Mongolian‚Äźtugriks (US$7.35 million) which equates to approximately 0.65% of the Mongolian GDP. The FMD outbreaks combined with current control measures has negatively impacted herders‚Äô livelihoods (including herders with and without cases of FMD) which is likely to reduce stakeholder advocacy. Possible strategies that could be employed to ameliorate the negative effects of the current control policy were identified. The findings and approach are relevant to other FMD endemic regions aiming to control the disease

    Mathematical and Statistical Techniques for Systems Medicine: The Wnt Signaling Pathway as a Case Study

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    The last decade has seen an explosion in models that describe phenomena in systems medicine. Such models are especially useful for studying signaling pathways, such as the Wnt pathway. In this chapter we use the Wnt pathway to showcase current mathematical and statistical techniques that enable modelers to gain insight into (models of) gene regulation, and generate testable predictions. We introduce a range of modeling frameworks, but focus on ordinary differential equation (ODE) models since they remain the most widely used approach in systems biology and medicine and continue to offer great potential. We present methods for the analysis of a single model, comprising applications of standard dynamical systems approaches such as nondimensionalization, steady state, asymptotic and sensitivity analysis, and more recent statistical and algebraic approaches to compare models with data. We present parameter estimation and model comparison techniques, focusing on Bayesian analysis and coplanarity via algebraic geometry. Our intention is that this (non exhaustive) review may serve as a useful starting point for the analysis of models in systems medicine.Comment: Submitted to 'Systems Medicine' as a book chapte

    Search for new phenomena in final states with an energetic jet and large missing transverse momentum in pp collisions at ‚ąö s = 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    Results of a search for new phenomena in final states with an energetic jet and large missing transverse momentum are reported. The search uses 20.3 fb‚ąí1 of ‚ąö s = 8 TeV data collected in 2012 with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Events are required to have at least one jet with pT > 120 GeV and no leptons. Nine signal regions are considered with increasing missing transverse momentum requirements between Emiss T > 150 GeV and Emiss T > 700 GeV. Good agreement is observed between the number of events in data and Standard Model expectations. The results are translated into exclusion limits on models with either large extra spatial dimensions, pair production of weakly interacting dark matter candidates, or production of very light gravitinos in a gauge-mediated supersymmetric model. In addition, limits on the production of an invisibly decaying Higgs-like boson leading to similar topologies in the final state are presente
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