63 research outputs found

    Combatting Abortion Misinformation and Disinformation in Medical Education

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    Abstract Introduction: Although abortion has historically been federally legal, functional access to abortion care has been thwarted by inflammatory political discourse. Abortion misinformation and disinformation have been deliberately intertwined into political agendas and ideologies, widening the gap between the lay public‚Äôs perception of and patients‚Äô lived experience with abortion care. The politicization of abortion care has adverse effects on its provision and training along lines of inequity and marginalization established by preexisting systems of oppression and structural violence. Critical feminist pedagogy‚ÄĒan examination of class, gender, and sexuality on patriarchal misrepresentations of abortion information‚ÄĒcan guide medical students to recognize and combat abortion misinformation and disinformation. Objectives: We apply critical feminist pedagogy to abortion education in medical school curricula to equip students to recognize 1) motives underlying false abortion messaging and 2) mechanisms to produce abortion misinformation and disinformation. We propose interventions that allow medical students to leverage their professional status and privilege in improving the U.S. abortion discourse throughout their careers. Proposed Approaches: We contextualize two classifications of misinformation and disinformation utilized by the anti-abortion movement. We then discuss how educational interventions addressing both of these mechanisms can be adapted through a feminist lens to teach medical students about the complexity of pregnancy decision-making and empower them to debunk false abortion messaging. First, we explore the hijacking of false sensationalized narratives by anti-abortion efforts to frame care-seeking patients as ‚Äėimmoral‚Äô and thereby distort our collective knowledge regarding abortion care. We posit that narrative medicine and the complexity of real patient stories can overpower this misleading imagery and allow students to integrate lived realities within their conceptualization of abortion. Second, we examine the co-opting of medical language by the anti-abortion movement to influence abortion policymaking. We propose that curricula allowing medical students to push back against abortion misinformation and disinformation can help them practice debunking false messages while also supporting the public health importance of safe abortion care. Conclusions: Medical students need to recognize and combat the plethora of false abortion messaging in our current post-Roe sociopolitical landscape. Innovations framed within a feminist pedagogy in undergraduate medical education can help trainees understand the importance of reproductive justice, pregnancy decision-making, and abortion care in the context of the patient experience. Over time, these lessons can train future physicians to engage in equitable, accurate conversations about abortion care both inside and outside the exam room

    Birthplace in Australia: Processes and interactions during the intrapartum transfer of women from planned homebirth to hospital

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    ¬© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Objective the aim of the study was to explore the views and experiences of women, midwives and obstetricians on the intrapartum transfer of women from planned homebirth to hospital in Australia. Design a Constructivist Grounded Theory approach was taken, to conceptualise the social interactions and processes grounded in the data. Setting urban and regional areas in four states of south-eastern Australia. Participants semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 36 women, midwives and obstetricians who had experienced an intrapartum homebirth transfer within three years prior to the interview. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Findings women who were transferred to hospital from a planned homebirth made physical and psychological journeys out of their comfort zone, as they faced the uncertainty of changing expectations for their birth. The trusting relationship between a woman and her homebirth midwife was crucial to women's sense of safety and well-being in hospital. Midwives and obstetricians, when congregating in the hospital birthing rooms of transferred women, also felt out of their comfort zones. This was due to the challenges of converging with others who possessed conflicting paradigms of safety and risk in birth that were at odds with their own, and adapting to different routines, roles and responsibilities. These differences were derived from diverse professional, social and personal influences and often manifested in stereotyping behaviours and ‚Äėus and them‚Äô dynamics. When midwife-woman partnerships were respected as an inclusive part of women's care, collaboration ensued, conflict was ameliorated, and smooth transfers could be celebrated as successes of the maternity care system. Key conclusions supporting woman centred care in homebirth transfers means acknowledging the social challenges of collaborating in the unique context of a transferred woman's hospital birthing room. Understanding the power of the midwife-woman partnership, and its value to the health and well-being of each woman and her baby, is key to facilitating a successful transfer. Implications for practice the midwife-woman partnership played a central role in providing the necessary support and advocacy for women transferred out of their comfort zone. When midwives worked together in an integrated system to provide the necessary care and support for women who were transferred, greater levels of collaboration emerged and women's perceptions of their quality of care was high. In practice, this meant health professionals respecting each other's roles, responsibilities and expertise, and ameliorating ‚Äėus and them‚Äô dynamics

    Genetic Associations and Architecture of Asthma-COPD Overlap

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    BACKGROUND: Some people have characteristics of both asthma and COPD (asthma-COPD overlap), and evidence suggests they experience worse outcomes than those with either condition alone. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the genetic architecture of asthma-COPD overlap, and do the determinants of risk for asthma-COPD overlap differ from those for COPD or asthma? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study in 8,068 asthma-COPD overlap case subjects and 40,360 control subjects without asthma or COPD of European ancestry in UK Biobank (stage 1). We followed up promising signals (P < 5 x 10(-6)) that remained associated in analyses comparing (1) asthma-COPD overlap vs asthma-only control subjects, and (2) asthma-COPD overlap vs COPD-only control subjects. These variants were analyzed in 12 independent cohorts (stage 2). RESULTS: We selected 31 independent variants for further investigation in stage 2, and discovered eight novel signals (P < 5 x 10(-8)) for asthma-COPD overlap (meta-analysis of stage 1 and 2 studies). These signals suggest a spectrum of shared genetic influences, some predominantly influencing asthma (FAM105A, GLB1, PHB, TSLP), others predominantly influencing fixed airflow obstruction (IL17RD, C5orf56, HLA-DQB1). One intergenic signal on chromosome 5 had not been previously associated with asthma, COPD, or lung function. Subgroup analyses suggested that associations at these eight signals were not driven by smoking or age at asthma diagnosis, and in phenome-wide scans, eosinophil counts, atopy, and asthma traits were prominent. INTERPRETATION: We identified eight signals for asthma-COPD overlap, which may represent loci that predispose to type 2 inflammation, and serious long-term consequences of asthma.Peer reviewe

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and related phenotypes:polygenic risk scores in population-based and case-control cohorts

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    Platelet-Related Variants Identified by Exomechip Meta-analysis in 157,293 Individuals

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    Platelet production, maintenance, and clearance are tightly controlled processes indicative of platelets important roles in hemostasis and thrombosis. Platelets are common targets for primary and secondary prevention of several conditions. They are monitored clinically by complete blood counts, specifically with measurements of platelet count (PLT) and mean platelet volume (MPV). Identifying genetic effects on PLT and MPV can provide mechanistic insights into platelet biology and their role in disease. Therefore, we formed the Blood Cell Consortium (BCX) to perform a large-scale meta-analysis of Exomechip association results for PLT and MPV in 157,293 and 57,617 individuals, respectively. Using the low-frequency/rare coding variant-enriched Exomechip genotyping array, we sought to identify genetic variants associated with PLT and MPV. In addition to confirming 47 known PLT and 20 known MPV associations, we identified 32 PLT and 18 MPV associations not previously observed in the literature across the allele frequency spectrum, including rare large effect (FCER1A), low-frequency (IQGAP2, MAP1A, LY75), and common (ZMIZ2, SMG6, PEAR1, ARFGAP3/PACSIN2) variants. Several variants associated with PLT/MPV (PEAR1, MRVI1, PTGES3) were also associated with platelet reactivity. In concurrent BCX analyses, there was overlap of platelet-associated variants with red (MAP1A, TMPRSS6, ZMIZ2) and white (PEAR1, ZMIZ2, LY75) blood cell traits, suggesting common regulatory pathways with shared genetic architecture among these hematopoietic lineages. Our large-scale Exomechip analyses identified previously undocumented associations with platelet traits and further indicate that several complex quantitative hematological, lipid, and cardiovascular traits share genetic factors

    Author Correction: Multi-ancestry genome-wide association analyses improve resolution of genes and pathways influencing lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease risk

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    Genetic diversity fuels gene discovery for tobacco and alcohol use

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    Tobacco and alcohol use are heritable behaviours associated with 15% and 5.3% of worldwide deaths, respectively, due largely to broad increased risk for disease and injury(1-4). These substances are used across the globe, yet genome-wide association studies have focused largely on individuals of European ancestries(5). Here we leveraged global genetic diversity across 3.4 million individuals from four major clines of global ancestry (approximately 21% non-European) to power the discovery and fine-mapping of genomic loci associated with tobacco and alcohol use, to inform function of these loci via ancestry-aware transcriptome-wide association studies, and to evaluate the genetic architecture and predictive power of polygenic risk within and across populations. We found that increases in sample size and genetic diversity improved locus identification and fine-mapping resolution, and that a large majority of the 3,823 associated variants (from 2,143 loci) showed consistent effect sizes across ancestry dimensions. However, polygenic risk scores developed in one ancestry performed poorly in others, highlighting the continued need to increase sample sizes of diverse ancestries to realize any potential benefit of polygenic prediction.Peer reviewe

    Alignment of the CMS tracker with LHC and cosmic ray data

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    ¬© CERN 2014 for the benefit of the CMS collaboration, published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License by IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation and DOI.The central component of the CMS detector is the largest silicon tracker ever built. The precise alignment of this complex device is a formidable challenge, and only achievable with a significant extension of the technologies routinely used for tracking detectors in the past. This article describes the full-scale alignment procedure as it is used during LHC operations. Among the specific features of the method are the simultaneous determination of up to 200 000 alignment parameters with tracks, the measurement of individual sensor curvature parameters, the control of systematic misalignment effects, and the implementation of the whole procedure in a multi-processor environment for high execution speed. Overall, the achieved statistical accuracy on the module alignment is found to be significantly better than 10őľm
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