50 research outputs found

    Glycated hemoglobin measurements at three, 12 and 24 months postpartum after gestational diabetes

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    Purpose: To determine the associations between glycated hemoglobin (A1C) values at three, 12 and 24 months postpartum taken during the Families Defeating Diabetes trial. Methods: The Families Defeating Diabetes trial was a randomized 12 month lifestyle intervention delivered in the first year postpartum. Women were reviewed at three, 6 12 and 24 months for body habitus, diet and lifestyle choices. Glycated hemoglobin levels were measured at three, 12 and 24 months. Results: There were 170 randomization participants: 89 interventional (INT); and 81 control (CON). Of these 170 participants, 50 INT and 47 CON completed 12-month follow-up and 26 INT and 24 CON completed 24-month follow-up. Study outcomes did not differ between the cohorts. Combined intraclass correlation coefficients for reliability of repeated results showed substantial reliability: 0.74 (95% CI 0.63, 0.83) between three and 12 month A1C; and 0.72 (95% CI 0.51, 0.85) for three and 24 month A1C. Pearson correlations for three month vs 12 month A1C were r=0.745 (p\u3c0.001) and three month vs 24 month A1C were r=0.718 (p=0.001) Conclusions: The A1C values at three, 12 and 24 months after gestational diabetes mellitus showed substantial reliability by intraclass correlation coefficients analysis as well as significant Pearson correlations. These findings add perspective to timing and use of A1C to document postpartum glucose tolerance for women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus. These findings suggest a role for postpartum A1C testing; however, a longitudinal comparison with OGTT results is required to confirm clinical validity

    Randomized Control Trial of Postnatal rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3 Replacement in Preterm Infants: Post-hoc Analysis of Its Effect on Brain Injury.

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    Background: Postnatal insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) replacement with recombinant human (rh)IGF-1 and IGF binding protein-3 (rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3) is being studied as a potential treatment to reduce comorbidities of prematurity. We have recently reported on a phase II, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial comparing postnatal rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3 replacement with standard of care (SOC) in extremely preterm infants (NCT01096784). Maximum severity of retinopathy of prematurity was the primary endpoint of the trial and presence of GMH-IVH/PHI one of the pre-specified secondary endpoints. Infants therefore received serial cranial ultrasound scans (CUS) between birth and term age. In this post-hoc analysis we present a detailed analysis of the CUS data of this trial and evaluate the effect of postnatal rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3 replacement on the incidence of different kinds of brain injury in extremely preterm infants. Methods: This report is an exploratory post-hoc analysis of a phase II trial in which infants <28 weeks gestational age were randomly allocated to rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3 or SOC. Serial cranial ultrasounds were performed between birth and term-equivalent age. Presence of germinal matrix hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH), periventricular hemorrhagic infarction (PHI), post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilatation, and white matter injury (WMI) were scored by two independent masked readers. Results: The analysis included 117 infants; 58 received rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3 and 59 received SOC. A trend toward less grade II-III GMH-IVH and PHI was observed in treated infants vs. SOC. A subanalysis of infants without evidence of GMH-IVH at study entry (n = 104) showed reduced progression to GMH-IVH in treated infants (25.0% [13/52] vs. 40.4% [21/52]; not significant). No effects of rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3 on WMI were observed. Conclusion: The potential protective effect of rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3 on the occurrence of GMH-IVH/PHI appeared most pronounced in infants with no evidence of GMH-IVH at treatment start

    p53 Regulates Cell Cycle and MicroRNAs to Promote Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

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    Multiple studies show that tumor suppressor p53 is a barrier to dedifferentiation; whether this is strictly due to repression of proliferation remains a subject of debate. Here, we show that p53 plays an active role in promoting differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and opposing self-renewal by regulation of specific target genes and microRNAs. In contrast to mouse embryonic stem cells, p53 in hESCs is maintained at low levels in the nucleus, albeit in a deacetylated, inactive state. In response to retinoic acid, CBP/p300 acetylates p53 at lysine 373, which leads to dissociation from E3-ubiquitin ligases HDM2 and TRIM24. Stabilized p53 binds CDKN1A to establish a G1 phase of cell cycle without activation of cell death pathways. In parallel, p53 activates expression of miR-34a and miR-145, which in turn repress stem cell factors OCT4, KLF4, LIN28A, and SOX2 and prevent backsliding to pluripotency. Induction of p53 levels is a key step: RNA-interference-mediated knockdown of p53 delays differentiation, whereas depletion of negative regulators of p53 or ectopic expression of p53 yields spontaneous differentiation of hESCs, independently of retinoic acid. Ectopic expression of p53R175H, a mutated form of p53 that does not bind DNA or regulate transcription, failed to induce differentiation. These studies underscore the importance of a p53-regulated network in determining the human stem cell state

    The Effects Of Public Pressure On Csr Behavior In A Capital Market Experiencing Excessive Moral Debt

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    The events surrounding the passage of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (Sarbanes) offer an opportunity to reflect on the influences of public pressure and possible public policy shifts on CSR behavior in a capital market experiencing excessive moral debt. Using the passage of Sarbanes to symbolize a potential public policy shift driven by public pressure, we examine the influence of social legitimacy variables on corporate social responsibility (CSR) behavior before (1991-2001) and after (2002-2005) the passage of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. We posit that changes in CSR strategies surrounding the passage of Sarbanes were used to maximize stakeholder interests by addressing social legitimacy involving corporate accountability issues. Our findings support that CSR behaviors were significantly influenced by the public pressure variables of Sarbanes and company size, but were not significantly influenced by our economic legitimacy control measures, with the exception of a positive significant interaction between Leverage and Sarbanes for CSR Strengths. It appears that post- Sarbanes CSR behaviors were used to address social legitimacy concerns. Further, as CSR Weaknesses ratings exceeded CSR Strengths ratings post-Sarbanes, it appears that transparency of actual CSR performance may have improved post-Sarbanes. © 2012 American Accounting Association. All rights reserved

    The effects of public pressure on CSR behavior in a capital market experiencing excessive moral debt

    No full text
    The events surrounding the passage of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (Sarbanes) offer an opportunity to reflect on the influences of public pressure and possible public policy shifts on CSR behavior in a capital market experiencing excessive moral debt. Using the passage of Sarbanes to symbolize a potential public policy shift driven by public pressure, we examine the influence of social legitimacy variables on corporate social responsibility (CSR) behavior before (1991-2001) and after (2002-2005) the passage of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. We posit that changes in CSR strategies surrounding the passage of Sarbanes were used to maximize stakeholder interests by addressing social legitimacy involving corporate accountability issues. Our findings support that CSR behaviors were significantly influenced by the public pressure variables of Sarbanes and company size, but were not significantly influenced by our economic legitimacy control measures, with the exception of a positive significant interaction between Leverage and Sarbanes for CSR Strengths. It appears that post- Sarbanes CSR behaviors were used to address social legitimacy concerns. Further, as CSR Weaknesses ratings exceeded CSR Strengths ratings post-Sarbanes, it appears that transparency of actual CSR performance may have improved post-Sarbanes. © 2012 American Accounting Association. All rights reserved

    Viscosity Data for Commercial Rosin and Abietic Acid

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    Glycated hemoglobin measurements at three, 12 and 24 months postpartum after gestational diabetes

    Get PDF
    Purpose: To determine the associations between glycated hemoglobin (A1C) values at three, 12 and 24 months postpartum taken during the Families Defeating Diabetes trial. Methods: The Families Defeating Diabetes trial was a randomized 12 month lifestyle intervention delivered in the first year postpartum. Women were reviewed at three, 6 12 and 24 months for body habitus, diet and lifestyle choices. Glycated hemoglobin levels were measured at three, 12 and 24 months. Results: There were 170 randomization participants: 89 interventional (INT); and 81 control (CON). Of these 170 participants, 50 INT and 47 CON completed 12-month follow-up and 26 INT and 24 CON completed 24-month follow-up. Study outcomes did not differ between the cohorts. Combined intraclass correlation coefficients for reliability of repeated results showed substantial reliability: 0.74 (95% CI 0.63, 0.83) between three and 12 month A1C; and 0.72 (95% CI 0.51, 0.85) for three and 24 month A1C. Pearson correlations for three month vs 12 month A1C were r=0.745 (
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