41 research outputs found

    The effect of thermal photons on exceptional points in coupled resonators

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    We analyse two quantum systems with hidden parity-time (PT) symmetry: one is an optical device, whereas another is a superconducting microwave-frequency device. To investigate their symmetry, we introduce an equilibrium frame, in which loss and gain terms for a given Hamiltonian are balanced. We show that the non-Hermitian Hamiltonians of both systems can be tuned to reach an exceptional point (EP), i.e., the point in parameter space at which a transition from broken to unbroken hidden PT symmetry takes place. We calculate a degeneracy of a Liouvillian superoperator, which is called the Liouvillian exceptional point (LEP), and show that, in the optical domain, LEP is equivalent to EP obtained from the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian (HEP). We also report breaking the equivalence between LEP and HEP by a non-zero number of thermal photons for the microwave-frequency system.Comment: This preprint has not undergone peer review or any post-submission improvements or corrections. The Version of Record of this article is published in Scientific Reports, and is available online at https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-023-32864-

    VLBI20-30: a scientific roadmap for the next decade -- The future of the European VLBI Network

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    This white paper describes the science case for Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and provides suggestions towards upgrade paths for the European VLBI Network (EVN). The EVN is a distributed long-baseline radio interferometric array, that operates at the very forefront of astronomical research. Recent results, together with the new science possibilities outlined in this vision document, demonstrate the EVN's potential to generate new and exciting results that will transform our view of the cosmos. Together with e-MERLIN, the EVN provides a range of baseline lengths that permit unique studies of faint radio sources to be made over a wide range of spatial scales. The science cases are reviewed in six chapters that cover the following broad areas: cosmology, galaxy formation and evolution, innermost regions of active galactic nuclei, explosive phenomena and transients, stars and stellar masers in the Milky Way, celestial reference frames and space applications. The document concludes with identifying the synergies with other radio, as well as multi-band/multi-messenger instruments, and provide the recommendations for future improvements. The appendices briefly describe other radio VLBI arrays, the technological framework for EVN developments, and a selection of spectral lines of astrophysical interest below 100 GHz. The document includes a glossary for non-specialists, and a list of acronyms at the end

    Recent updates on the Maser Monitoring Organisation

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    The Maser Monitoring Organisation (M2O) is a research community of telescope operators, astronomy researchers and maser theoreticians pursuing a joint goal of reaching a deeper understanding of maser emission and exploring its variety of uses as tracers of astrophysical events. These proceedings detail the origin, motivations and current status of the M2O, as was introduced at the 2021 EVN symposium

    Millimeter methanol emission in the high-mass young stellar object G24.33+0.14

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    <jats:title>Abstract</jats:title> <jats:p>In 2019 September, a sudden flare of the 6.7???GHz methanol maser was observed toward the high-mass young stellar object (HMYSO) G24.33+0.14. This may represent the fourth detection of a transient mass accretion event in an HMYSO after S255IR??NIRS3, NGC??6334I-MM1, and G358.93???0.03-MM1. G24.33+0.14 is unique among these sources as it clearly shows a repeating flare with an 8???yr interval. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), we observed the millimeter continuum and molecular lines toward G24.33+0.14 in the pre-flare phase in 2016 August (ALMA Cycle??3) and the mid-flare phase in 2019 September (ALMA Cycle??6). We identified three continuum sources in G24.33+0.14, and the brightest source, C1, which is closely associated with the 6.7???GHz maser emission, shows only a marginal increase in flux density with a flux ratio (Cycle??6//Cycle??3) of 1.16 ?? 0.01, considering an additional absolute flux calibration uncertainty of 10%10\%. We identified 26 transitions from 13 molecular species other than methanol, and they exhibit similar levels of flux differences with an average flux ratio of 1.12 ?? 0.15. In contrast, eight methanol lines observed in Cycle??6 are brighter than those in Cycle??3 with an average flux ratio of 1.23 ?? 0.13, and the higher excitation lines tend to show a larger flux increase. If this systematic increasing trend is real, it would suggest radiative heating close to the central HMYSO due to an accretion event which could expand the size of the emission region and/or change the excitation conditions. Given the low brightness temperatures and small flux changes, most of the methanol emission is likely to be predominantly thermal, except for the 229.759???GHz (8???1???70??E) line known as a class??I methanol maser. The flux change in the millimeter continuum of G24.33+0.14 is smaller than in S255IR??NIRS3 and NGC??6334I-MM1 but is comparable with that in G358.93???0.03-MM1, suggesting different amounts of accreted mass in these events.</jats:p&gt

    Thermocapillary marangoni flows in Azopolymers

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    It is well known that light-induced multiple trans-cis-trans photoisomerizations of azobenzene derivatives attached to various matrices (polymeric, liquid crystalline polymers) result in polymer mass movement leading to generation of surface reliefs. The reliefs can be produced at small as well as at large light intensities. When linearly polarized light is used in the process, directional photo-induced molecular orientation of the azo molecules occurs, which leads to the generation of optical anisotropy in the system, providing that thermal effects are negligible. On the other hand, large reliefs are observed at relatively strong laser intensities when the optofluidization process is particularly effective. In this article, we describe the competitive thermocapillary Marangoni effect of polymer mass motion. We experimentally prove that the Marangoni effect occurs simultaneously with the optofluidization process. It destroys the orientation of the azopolymer molecules and results in cancelation of the photo-induced birefringence. Our experimental observations of polymer surface topography with atomic force microscopy are supported by suitable modelings

    A search for the OH 6035 MHz line in high-mass star-forming regions

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    Context. The excited states of OH masers detected in the environment of high-mass young stellar objects (HMYSOs) are important for improving our understanding of the physical conditions of these objects and also provide information about their magnetic fields. Aims. We aim to search for excited-state OH 6035 MHz maser emission in HMYSOs which might have escaped detection in previous surveys or were never searched for. Methods. A sample of HMYSOs derived from untargeted surveys of the 6668 MHz methanol maser line was observed at 6035 MHz OH transition with the Torun 32 m radio telescope. The 6035 MHz detections were observed in the OH 6031 MHz line. Two-thirds of the detections were observed at least three times over a two-year period. Results. Out of 445 targets, 37 were detected at 6035 MHz, including seven new discoveries. The 6031 MHz line was detected towards ten 6035 MHz sources, one of which was not previously reported. All the newly detected sources are faint with the peak flux density lower than 4 Jy and show significant or high variability on timescales of 4 to 20 months. Zeeman pair candidates identified in three new sources imply a magnetic field intensity of 2-11 mG. Comparison of our spectra with those obtained ~10 yr ago indicates different degrees of variability but there is a general increase in the variability index on an ~25 yr timescale, usually accompanied by significant changes in the profile shape

    PoS(10th EVN Symposium)002 The magic of disc-worlds: non-rotating methanol masers PoS(10th EVN Symposium)002

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    In recent studies of methanol masers, a substantial fraction of the objects show maser components aligned in large-scale elliptical configurations. These can be readily interpreted as rings centred on a high mass star in formation, seen in projection. Remarkably, most of these rings do not show signs of rotation, but rather the radial motions dominate. This must mean that their dynamics are governed by other than gravitational forces. In particular, we have studied the methanol masers around Cep A in detail, where it can be argued that the methanol masers show signs of infall. In this paper we discuss the dynamics of the Cep A methanol maser and sources from the Torun blind survey to argue that at least in a fraction of sources methanol masers could be associated with the shock interface between the large scale accretion, regulated by the magnetic field, and a 1000-AU scale circumstellar disk. We discuss the validity of such a model for the overall population of methanol maser sources. 10th European VLBI Network Symposium and EVN Users Meeting: VLBI and the new generation of radio array