18 research outputs found

    Intake, digestibility, and ingestive behavior of sheep fed with thornless Mandacaru, cactus pear genotypes Orelha de Elefante Mexicana and Mi√ļda

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    This study aimed to evaluate the intake, digestibility, and ingestive behavior of sheep fed with different species of forage cacti. Fifteen sheep (17.27kg ¬Ī 1 kg) were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with three treatments and five replicates. The treatments were diets on a dry matter basis composed of 430.9 g kg-1 of thornless Mandacaru cactus (Cereus hildmannianus), 525.7 g kg-1 of cactus pear cv. Orelha de Elefante Mexicana (Opuntia stricta) and 492.1 g kg-1 of cactus pear cv. Mi√ļda (Nopalea cochenillifera) in addition to Sabi√° hay (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia) (194.7 to 233.8 g kg-1), plus concentrate feed. The intake of the dry matter, organic matter, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, total carbohydrates, non-fiber carbohydrates, total digestible nutrients and voluntary water intake in g day-1 was not differ (p > 0.05) by experimental diets. There were no differences (p > 0.05) in digestibility coefficients of the dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, total carbohydrates, non-fiber carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients between the experimental diets. The feeding times differed (p 0.05). The cactus Cereus and Opuntia and Nopalea have similar nutritional value in sheep‚Äôs diet

    Uńćinci ekstrakta Cytinus hypocistis (L.) L. u Ňĺivotinjskom modelu neoplazije inducirane papiloma virusom

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    Infections with certain types of papillomavirus, such as the human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16), are associated with the development of preneoplastic lesions and cancers of the anogenital, and head and neck regions. Cytinus hypocistis (L.) L. extracts are composed of substances presenting antiproliferative, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, which might be promising as new therapeutic compounds. This study analysed the influence of topical application of an extract obtained from C. hypocistis (CH) on K14-HPV16 and FVB/n mice to evaluate its therapeutic and toxicological properties. To achieve the study goals, 30 female mice, 33‚Äď37 weeks old, were divided into six groups (n=5/group): I (HPV+CH3.1); II (HPV+CH6.2); III (HPV+CH12.4); IV (FVB/n+CH12.4); V (HPV+control) and VI (FVB/n+-control). CH was applied topically to both ears for 28 days. After this period, all animals were sacrificed for samples collection. Skin lesions were classified histologically. Toxicological parameters included haematological and biochemical blood markers, and hepatic oxidative stress analysis. Transgenic animals showed a decrease in mean body weight regardless of the concentration of extract applied. The extract had no influence on physiological parameters, organ weight, or biochemical and oxidative stress parameters. Histology demonstrated the presence of proliferative epithelial lesions in the skin and oral mucosa of K14-HPV16 mice, with no association with the application of this extract. Overall, the application of CH extract had no influence on the skin lesions and was well tolerated by the animals in these concentrations.Infekcije odreńĎenim vrstama papiloma virusa, poput humanog papiloma virusa 16 (HPV16), povezane su s razvojem preneoplastińćnih lezija i karcinoma anogenitalnog podruńćja i podruńćja glave i vrata. Ekstrakti Cytinus hypocistis (CH) sadrŇĺe tvari koje pokazuju antiproliferativna, antioksidativna, protuupalna i antibakterijska svojstva te bi stoga mogle predstavljati nove, obeńáavajuńáe terapijske spojeve. Cilj je ovog rada bio analizirati utjecaj topikalne primjene ekstrakta dobivenog iz C. hypocistis (L.) L. na K14-HPV16 i FVB/n miŇ°evima za procjenu njegovih terapijskih i toksikoloŇ°kih svojstava. Za postizanje ciljeva istraŇĺivanja, trideset Ňĺenki miŇ°eva starosti 33-37 tjedana podijeljeno je u Ň°est skupina (n=5/ skupini): I (HPV+CH3,1); II (HPV+CH6,2); III (HPV+CH12,4); IV (FVB/n+CH12,4); V (HPV+kontrola) i VI (FVB/n+kontrola). CH je tijekom 28 dana topikalno primijenjen na oba uha. Nakon tog razdoblja sve Ňĺivotinje su Ňĺrtvovane u svrhu prikupljanja rezulata. Lezije koŇĺe su histoloŇ°ki klasificirane. ToksikoloŇ°ki parametri ukljuńćivali su hematoloŇ°ke i biokemijske markere krvi te analizu oksidativnog stresa jetre. Transgenińćne Ňĺivotinje pokazale su smanjenje srednje tjelesne mase, bez obzira na primijenjenu koncentraciju ekstrakta. Ekstrakt nije utjecao na fizioloŇ°ke parametre, masu organa ili parametre biokemijskog i oksidativnog stresa. HistoloŇ°ki je dokazana prisutnost proliferativnih epitelnih lezija na koŇĺi i oralnoj sluznici K14-HPV16 miŇ°eva, bez povezanosti s primjenom ovog ekstrakta. Opńáenito, primjena CH ekstrakta nije utjecala na lezije koŇĺe te su ga Ňĺivotinje dobro podnosile u primijenjenim koncentracijama

    Efeito da aplicação repetida de Cytinus hypocistis em murganhos transgénicos (K14HPV16): avaliação de humane endpoints

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    Em, 1959 Russel e Burch propuseram os 3Rs (Reduce, Refine e Replacement) em experimenta√ß√£o animal e desde ent√£o as diversas entidades envolvidas na tem√°tica t√™m feito esfor√ßos conjuntos para os aplicar (1). Nesse sentido foi gradualmente introduzida a avalia√ß√£o e registo dos humane endpoints (HE) dos animais durante procedimentos experimentais, para monitorizar o seu sofrimento e tomar decis√Ķes sobre a necessidade, ou n√£o, de finalizar o ensaio antes da data prevista (2). Contudo, apesar das exig√™ncias legais, observa-se grande escassez de publica√ß√Ķes sobre a avalia√ß√£o de HE nos procedimentos com animais de laborat√≥rio. Assim, √© nosso objetivo com este trabalho apresentar os HE durante a aplica√ß√£o di√°ria de um creme com Cytinus hypocistis numa estirpe de murganhos transg√©nicos.Financiamento nacional pela FCT, Funda√ß√£o para a Ci√™ncia e a Tecnologia, no √Ęmbito da bolsa de doutoramento 2020.07675.BD de Beatriz Medeiros Fonseca.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    SARS-CoV-2 introductions and early dynamics of the epidemic in Portugal

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    Genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in Portugal was rapidly implemented by the National Institute of Health in the early stages of the COVID-19 epidemic, in collaboration with more than 50 laboratories distributed nationwide. Methods By applying recent phylodynamic models that allow integration of individual-based travel history, we reconstructed and characterized the spatio-temporal dynamics of SARSCoV-2 introductions and early dissemination in Portugal. Results We detected at least 277 independent SARS-CoV-2 introductions, mostly from European countries (namely the United Kingdom, Spain, France, Italy, and Switzerland), which were consistent with the countries with the highest connectivity with Portugal. Although most introductions were estimated to have occurred during early March 2020, it is likely that SARS-CoV-2 was silently circulating in Portugal throughout February, before the first cases were confirmed. Conclusions Here we conclude that the earlier implementation of measures could have minimized the number of introductions and subsequent virus expansion in Portugal. This study lays the foundation for genomic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in Portugal, and highlights the need for systematic and geographically-representative genomic surveillance.We gratefully acknowledge to Sara Hill and Nuno Faria (University of Oxford) and Joshua Quick and Nick Loman (University of Birmingham) for kindly providing us with the initial sets of Artic Network primers for NGS; Rafael Mamede (MRamirez team, IMM, Lisbon) for developing and sharing a bioinformatics script for sequence curation (https://github.com/rfm-targa/BioinfUtils); Philippe Lemey (KU Leuven) for providing guidance on the implementation of the phylodynamic models; Joshua L. Cherry (National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health) for providing guidance with the subsampling strategies; and all authors, originating and submitting laboratories who have contributed genome data on GISAID (https://www.gisaid.org/) on which part of this research is based. The opinions expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not reflect the view of the National Institutes of Health, the Department of Health and Human Services, or the United States government. This study is co-funded by Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia and Agência de Investigação Clínica e Inovação Biomédica (234_596874175) on behalf of the Research 4 COVID-19 call. Some infrastructural resources used in this study come from the GenomePT project (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-022184), supported by COMPETE 2020 - Operational Programme for Competitiveness and Internationalisation (POCI), Lisboa Portugal Regional Operational Programme (Lisboa2020), Algarve Portugal Regional Operational Programme (CRESC Algarve2020), under the PORTUGAL 2020 Partnership Agreement, through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), and by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT).info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    ATLANTIC EPIPHYTES: a data set of vascular and non-vascular epiphyte plants and lichens from the Atlantic Forest

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    Epiphytes are hyper-diverse and one of the frequently undervalued life forms in plant surveys and biodiversity inventories. Epiphytes of the Atlantic Forest, one of the most endangered ecosystems in the world, have high endemism and radiated recently in the Pliocene. We aimed to (1) compile an extensive Atlantic Forest data set on vascular, non-vascular plants (including hemiepiphytes), and lichen epiphyte species occurrence and abundance; (2) describe the epiphyte distribution in the Atlantic Forest, in order to indicate future sampling efforts. Our work presents the first epiphyte data set with information on abundance and occurrence of epiphyte phorophyte species. All data compiled here come from three main sources provided by the authors: published sources (comprising peer-reviewed articles, books, and theses), unpublished data, and herbarium data. We compiled a data set composed of 2,095 species, from 89,270 holo/hemiepiphyte records, in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay, recorded from 1824 to early 2018. Most of the records were from qualitative data (occurrence only, 88%), well distributed throughout the Atlantic Forest. For quantitative records, the most common sampling method was individual trees (71%), followed by plot sampling (19%), and transect sampling (10%). Angiosperms (81%) were the most frequently registered group, and Bromeliaceae and Orchidaceae were the families with the greatest number of records (27,272 and 21,945, respectively). Ferns and Lycophytes presented fewer records than Angiosperms, and Polypodiaceae were the most recorded family, and more concentrated in the Southern and Southeastern regions. Data on non-vascular plants and lichens were scarce, with a few disjunct records concentrated in the Northeastern region of the Atlantic Forest. For all non-vascular plant records, Lejeuneaceae, a family of liverworts, was the most recorded family. We hope that our effort to organize scattered epiphyte data help advance the knowledge of epiphyte ecology, as well as our understanding of macroecological and biogeographical patterns in the Atlantic Forest. No copyright restrictions are associated with the data set. Please cite this Ecology Data Paper if the data are used in publication and teaching events. © 2019 The Authors. Ecology © 2019 The Ecological Society of Americ

    Monoolein cubosome formation using solvent-exchange in bulk and microfluidics: the effect of DODAB and DDAB addition

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    Disserta√ß√£o de mestrado em Biophysics and BionanosystemsMonoolein is an ubiquitous lipid in the production of drug delivery formulations mostly because of its propensity to form highly attractive cubosome nanoparticles. Cubosomes consist of dispersions of lipid bicontinuous cubic phases in water typically, stabilized with an amphiphilic polymer. Solvent-exchange is an energetically efficient and scalable process where the lipid is dissolved in a solvent miscible with water, like ethanol, and rapidly added to an aqueous solution. However, this process has issues mainly related to the poor size control over the particles produced. Previously, it was observed that by employing a solvent exchange approach in a microfluidic device, one could have control over the size of monoolein nanoparticles by manipulating the flow rate ratio between the ethanolic lipid solution and the two aqueous side-streams. It was shown that the particle size decreased with the increase of the flow rate ratio. In this work, we explore the effect of the addition of cationic lipid (DDAB or DODAB) to monoolein nanoparticles with the goal of embedding cationic charge on such particles to make them suitable for the encapsulation of nucleic acids. Contrary to neat monoolein, the presence of cationic lipids makes the final particle size independent of the flow rate. Additionally, the particles are markedly smaller, with the size of cationic lipid-monoolein nanoparticles dependent on total lipid concentration and the proportion of cationic lipid to monoolein. The size of the nanoparticles produced decrease with the increase of the ratio of cationic lipid to monoolein or by decreasing the total lipid concentration. In respect to the particles' structure, SAXS measurements did not provide evidence of cubic structures. Nonetheless, when samples are observed with Transmission Electron Microscopy with negative staining, hexagonal patterns are visible. This observation may indicate the presence of a cubic phase, but alternative scenarios should still be considered.Na produ√ß√£o de formula√ß√Ķes para entrega de f√°rmacos a monole√≠na √© considerado um l√≠pido universal com base na sua propens√£o para formar cubossomas. Estas nanopart√≠culas consistem em dispers√Ķes de fases c√ļbicas bicont√≠nuas em √°gua, tipicamente estabilizadas com um pol√≠mero anfif√≠lico. O m√©todo de troca de solventes √© um processo energeticamente eficiente e reproduz√≠vel onde o l√≠pido √© dissolvido num solvente misc√≠vel com a √°gua, como o etanol, e rapidamente adicionado a uma solu√ß√£o aquosa. No entanto, este processo apresenta alguns entraves como a aus√™ncia de controlo sobre o tamanho das part√≠culas produzidas. Anteriormente foi observado que a aplica√ß√£o do m√©todo de troca de solventes em microflu√≠dica possibilitou o controlo do tamanho das nanopart√≠culas de monole√≠na atrav√©s da manipula√ß√£o do r√°cio de fluxo entre a solu√ß√£o de l√≠pido dissolvido em etanol e as solu√ß√Ķes aquosas laterias, mais especificamente, pelo aumento do r√°cio de fluxo, o tamanho das part√≠culas diminu√≠a. Neste trabalho exploramos o efeito da adi√ß√£o de l√≠pido cati√≥nico (DDAB ou DODAB) nas nanopart√≠culas de monole√≠na com o objetivo de incorporar carga positiva nas part√≠culas, capacitando-as a encapsular √°cidos nucleicos. Contrariamente ao que acontecia num sistema de monole√≠na puro, na presen√ßa de l√≠pidos cati√≥nicos o tamanho final das part√≠culas torna-se independente das condi√ß√Ķes de fluxo. Al√©m disso, as part√≠culas que se formam s√£o significativamente mais pequenas, sendo que o tamanho das nanopart√≠culas de l√≠pido cati√≥nico e monole√≠na √© dependente da concentra√ß√£o de l√≠pido total a da propor√ß√£o de l√≠pido cati√≥nico para monole√≠na. Essencialmente, o tamanho das nanopart√≠culas produzidas diminui com o aumento do r√°cio de l√≠pido cati√≥nico para monole√≠na e pela diminui√ß√£o da concentra√ß√£o de l√≠pido total da formula√ß√£o. De acordo com a estrutura das part√≠culas, quando realizamos testes em SAXS n√£o h√° evid√™ncia de estruturas c√ļbicas, no entanto, quando as amostras s√£o submetidas a an√°lises em TEM com marca√ß√£o negativa, estruturas com padr√Ķes hexagonais s√£o vis√≠veis. Esta observa√ß√£o poder√° indicar a presen√ßa de uma fase c√ļbica, mas cen√°rios alternativos ainda t√™m que ser considerados

    Topical action of Buriti oil (Mauritia flexuosa L.) in myositis induced in rats

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    <div><p>Abstract Purpose: To analyze the topical effects of Buriti oil (Mauritia flexuosa L.) in induced myositis in rats. Methods: Thirty six male rats divided into three groups: Control group (C), induced myositis group (MI) and induced myositis group reated with Mauritia flexuosa L. (MT). After inducing myositis with 1% acetic acid, was topically applied 0.5 ml of Mauritia flexuosa L.extract on the posterior region of the right gastrocnemius muscle in animals belonging to group MT, for 7 and 14 days. Results: The neutrophil number there was statistically significant difference, after 7 and 14 days, between groups C and MI (p <0.001) (p<0.01). The group MT there was a significant difference in relation to MI group in both experimental times with (p<0.001). The number of fibroblasts in the 14 days showed that when comparing the groups M and MT the differences were also significant (p<0.001). As for the DLL, in 7 days, there was a significant difference between group C and MI group (p <0.001). When considering the MT group, there was a significant difference in relation to the MI group (p <0.001). Conclusion: The extract of Mauritia flexuosa L. leaves lessened acute and chronic inflammation, increased fibroblast proliferation and reduced macroscopically edema.</p></div

    Supplementation of an Anthocyanin-Rich Elderberry (<i>Sambucus nigra</i> L.) Extract in FVB/n Mice: A Healthier Alternative to Synthetic Colorants

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    Sambucus nigra L., popularly known as elderberry, is renowned for its amazing therapeutic properties, as well as its uses as a food source, in nutraceuticals, and in traditional medicine. This study’s aim was to investigate the effects of an elderberry extract (EE) on mice for 29 days, as well as the safety of the extract when used as a natural colorant. Twenty-four FVB/n female mice (n = 6) were randomly assigned to one of four groups: control, 12 mg/mL EE (EE12), 24 mg/mL EE (EE24), or 48 mg/mL EE (EE48). The predominant anthocyanins detected were cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside. Food and drink intake were similar between groups, with the exception of EE48, who drank significantly less compared with the Control. Biochemical analysis of the liver showed that the changes observed in histological analysis had no pathological significance. The EE, at doses of 24 and 48 mg/mL, significantly reduced the oxidative DNA damage compared with the non-supplemented group. The S. nigra extract showed a favorable toxicological profile, affording it potential to be used in the food industry

    Development, stability and in vitro permeation studies of gels containing mometasone furoate for the treatment of dermatitis of the scalp

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    Dermatological inflammatory diseases such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and seborrhoeic dermatitis often affect the scalp and the eyebrows. Although there are many dosage forms available, these are particularly critical anatomic regions for application of topical formulations because of the presence of hair. Lotions are therefore the recommended type of drug delivery system for these areas. The presence of hair may limit the application and thus the acceptability of the formulation and its compliance. Because of its low apparent viscosity, lotion application is unpleasant. Gels, given their consistency and adhesiveness, are a suitable alternative to lotions in this situation. The aim of this study was to formulate a stable gel containing mometasone furoate, which is an anti-inflammatory and anti-pruritic corticosteroid, in order to improve topical treatment of scalp dermatitis. In this study, pharmaceutical development, physical-chemical characterization, stability and in vitro permeation studies were performed. In terms of the pH, viscosity, assay and macroscopic and microbiological properties, the gel was stable over the period of study. The in vitro permeation studies allowed the characterization of the mometasone furoate permeation profile for the gel through different membranes. Mometasone furoate presented a slow permeation through the skin. This gel appears safe for topical application.<br>Afec√ß√Ķes dermatol√≥gicas do tipo inflamat√≥rio como a dermatite at√≥pica, psor√≠ase e dermatite seborreica, afetam freq√ľentemente o couro cabeludo e sobrancelhas. Apesar de existirem v√°rias formas farmac√™uticas para o seu tratamento, apenas as lo√ß√Ķes s√£o indicadas para estas zonas, mas devido √† baixa viscosidade, a aplica√ß√£o de lo√ß√Ķes torna-se desagrad√°vel. Os geles, pela maior consist√™ncia e capacidade de ades√£o, apresentam-se como alternativa nesta situa√ß√£o. Neste trabalho procedeu-se ao desenvolvimento gal√™nico de um gel com furoato de mometasona, que √© um potente cortic√≥ide de √ļltima gera√ß√£o, com um r√°cio melhorado de risco/benef√≠cio. Foram avaliadas as caracter√≠sticas f√≠sico-qu√≠micas, a estabilidade e foram realizados ensaios de permea√ß√£o in vitro. O gel obtido apresenta caracter√≠sticas organol√©pticas e reol√≥gicas adequadas ao fim a que se destina tendo-se apresentado est√°vel qu√≠mica, f√≠sica e microbiologicamente durante o tempo do ensaio. Os estudos de permea√ß√£o in vitro permitiram caracterizar a formula√ß√£o atrav√©s de diferentes membranas. A membrana biol√≥gica (pele) n√£o permite uma grande permea√ß√£o do f√°rmaco o que poder√° sugerir que esta formula√ß√£o √© segura para aplica√ß√£o t√≥pica
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