1,865 research outputs found

    Chemical characterization and bioactive properties of portuguese wild edible mushrooms

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    Nineteen different mushroom species (Agaricus arvensis, Agaricus bisporus, Agaricusromagnesii, Agaricus silvaticus, Agaricus silvicola, Cantharellus cibarius, Hypholomafasciculare, Lactarius deliciosus, Lactarius piperatus, Lepista nuda, Leucopaxillusgiganteus, Lycoperdon molle, Lycoperdon perlatum, Macrolepiota mastoidea,Macrolepiota procera, Ramaria botrytis, Sarcodon imbricatus, Tricholoma acerbum and Tricholoma portentosum) from Northeast of Portugal, one of the European regions with higher wild edible mushrooms diversity, were evaluated for their chemical composition, nutritional value and bioactive properties (antioxidant and antimicrobial activities), in order to valorise mushrooms as a source of nutrients and nutraceuticals.The analysis of nutrients included determination of proteins, fats, ash, and carbohydrates, particularly sugars by HPLC-RI. The analysis of nutraceuticals included determination of fatty acids by GC-FID, and other phytochemicals such as tocopherols, by HPLC-fluorescence, phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, carotenoids and ascorbic acid, by spectrophotometric techniques. The antioxidant activity was screened through chemical and biochemical assays. The chemical assays allowed an evaluation of their reducing power, radical scavenging activity and inhibition of -carotene bleaching, while biochemical assays evaluated the lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity, using erythrocytes and brain cells as models. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using clinical isolates or collection microorganisms (Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and fungi).The macronutrient profile in general revealed that the wild mushrooms were rich sources of protein and carbohydrates and had low amounts of fat. The analysis of fatty acid composition allowed the quantification of twenty three fatty acids. Unsaturated fatty acids and, in particular, oleic and linoleic acids, were predominant. Mannitol and trehalose were the most abundant sugars. The analysed mushrooms also contain very useful phytochemicals such as phenolic compounds, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, and carotenoids. Particularly, four phenolic acids (protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, pcoumaric and cinnamic acid) and two vanillic acid isomers were detected, identified and quantified, as also three of the tocopherols vitamers (F-, G-, H- tocopherol); no tocotrienols were detected. All the species proved to have antioxidant properties,namely radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity. Ramaria botrytis was the most efficient species presenting the lowest EC50 values in the chemical and biochemical assays, which can be related to their higher content in bioactive compounds. The majority of the species revealed antimicrobial activity selectively against Gram + bacteria, in some cases, with lower minimum inhibitory concentration than the standards.Processing and cooking practices had a determining influence on chemical compositionand antioxidant properties. Cooked samples showed lower nutrients concentrations andlower antioxidant activity than either dried or frozen samples. Nevertheless, for fatty acids and sugar individual profiles, only cooking procedures seemed to be relevant, the cooked samples presenting higher MUFA, and lower PUFA and sugars contents. The fruiting body maturity stage proved to have influence on chemical composition and bioactivity of the wild mushrooms; mature carpophorus with mature spores is notrecommended for nutritional and medicinal proposals.In addition to dried mushrooms, alternative or substitute mushroom products are mycelia that could also be used as food and food-flavouring material, or in the formulation of nutraceuticals and functional foods. In order to explore it, mycelium of Leucopaxillus giganteus was produced using different pH, carbon and nitrogen sourcesin the culture medium, and evaluated for their bioactive properties. The antioxidantsconcentration increased along the growth time as a response to the oxidative stress andsubsequent free radicals production. The aldohexose glucose and diammoniumphosphate proved to be the most appropriate carbon and nitrogen sources to increaseantioxidant activity, leading to the highest phenols content and lowest EC50 values.Public health authorities consider prevention and treatment with nutraceuticals/phytochemicals a powerful instrument in maintaining and promotinghealth, longevity and life quality. The beneficial effects of nutraceuticals will undoubtedly have an impact on nutritional therapy; they also represent a growing segment of today s food industry. Mushrooms might be used directly in diet and promote health, taking advantage of the additive and synergistic effects of all the bioactive compounds present. Therefore, the ongoing research will lead to a new generation of foods, and will certainly promote their nutritional and medicinal use.Diecinueve especies diferentes de setas silvestres (Agaricus arvensis, Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus romagnesii, Agaricus silvaticus, Agaricus silvicola, Cantharellus cibarius, Hypholoma fasciculare, Lactarius deliciosus, Lactarius piperatus, Lepistanuda, Leucopaxillus giganteus, Lycoperdon molle, Lycoperdon perlatum, Macrolepiota mastoidea, Macrolepiota procera, Ramaria botrytis, Sarcodon imbricatus, Tricholoma acerbum and Tricholoma portentosum) del Nordeste de Portugal, una de las regiones europeas con mayor diversidad hongos silvestres comestibles, fueron evaluados conrelaci√≥n a su composici√≥n qu√≠mica, valor nutritivo y propiedades bioactivas (actividades antioxidante y antimicrobiana), con vistas a su valorizaci√≥n como fuente de nutrientes y nutrac√©uticos.El an√°lisis de nutrientes incluy√≥ la determinaci√≥n de prote√≠nas, grasas, cenizas, hidratos de carbono, y particularmente az√ļcares por HPLC-RI. El an√°lisis de nutrac√©uticos incluy√≥ la determinaci√≥n de √°cidos grasos por GC-FID y otros fitoqu√≠micos, como tocoferoles por HPLC-fluorescencia, compuestos fen√≥licos por HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS,carotenoides y √°cido asc√≥rbico por espectrofotometr√≠a. La actividad antioxidante sevalor√≥ mediante ensayos qu√≠micos y bioqu√≠micos. Los ensayos qu√≠micos consistieron en la evaluaci√≥n del poder reductor, inhibici√≥n del radical libre DPPH e inhibici√≥n de la decoloraci√≥n del G-caroteno, mientras que los ensayos bioqu√≠micos evaluaron la capacidad de inhibici√≥n de la peroxidaci√≥n lip√≠dica, utilizando como modelos eritrocitos y c√©lulas del cerebro. La actividad antimicrobiana fue evaluada utilizando aislados cl√≠nicos y microorganismos de colecci√≥n (bacterias Gram positivas y Gram negativas yhongos).El perfil de macronutrientes revel√≥ que, en general, los hongos silvestres son fuentes ricas de prote√≠nas e hidratos de carbono y que poseen poca cantidad de grasa. El an√°lisis de la composici√≥n de √°cidos grasos permiti√≥ la cuantificaci√≥n de veintitr√©s √°cidos grasos. Los √°cidos grasos insaturados y, en particular, los √°cidos oleico y linoleico, eran predominantes. Manitol y trehalosa fueron los az√ļcares m√°s abundantes. Las setas analizadas tambi√©n contienen fitoqu√≠micos tales como compuestos fen√≥licos, tocoferoles, √°cido asc√≥rbico y carotenoides. En particular, fueron detectados,identificados y cuantificados cuatro √°cidos fen√≥licos (√°cidos protocat√©quico, phidroxibenzoico,p-cum√°rico y cin√°mico) y dos is√≥meros del √°cido van√≠lico y tambi√©ntres is√≥meros de tocoferoles (F, G, de H-tocoferol), mientras que no se detectarontocotrienoles. Todas las especies mostraron propiedades antioxidantes, especialmentecapacidad para inhibir radicales libres y la peroxidaci√≥n lip√≠dica. Ramaria botrytis fue laespecie m√°s eficiente en este sentido, presentando los valores m√°s bajos de EC50 en los ensayos qu√≠micos y bioqu√≠micos, lo que puede estar relacionado con su mayor contenido en compuestos bioactivos. La mayor√≠a de las especies mostraron actividad antimicrobiana selectiva contra las bacterias Gram positivas, en algunos casos, con concentraciones m√≠nimas inhibitorias menores que las de los compuestos usados como referencia.El procesado y las pr√°cticas culinarias ejercen una influencia determinante en la composici√≥n qu√≠mica y propiedades antioxidantes de las setas estudiadas. Las muestras cocinadas ten√≠an menor concentraci√≥n de nutrientes y menor actividad antioxidante que las muestras secas o congeladas. Sin embargo, los perfiles individuales de √°cidos grasos y az√ļcares s√≥lo se vieron afectados en las muestras cocinadas, las cuales presentaban niveles mayores de √°cidos grasos monoinsaturados e inferiores de poliinsaturados y de az√ļcares.La maduraci√≥n del cuerpo fructificante tambi√©n demostr√≥ tener influencia en la composici√≥n qu√≠mica y en la bioactividad de las setas silvestres; as√≠, los carp√≥foros maduros con esporas maduras no pueden ser recomendados nutricional nimedicinalmente.Un producto alternativo a las setas desecadas son los micelios, que tambi√©n podr√≠an ser utilizados como alimento o ingrediente, o en la formulaci√≥n de nutrac√©uticos y alimentos funcionales. Para explorar esta posibilidad, se obtuvieron micelios de Leucopaxillus giganteus utilizando diferentes pH, fuentes de carbono y nitr√≥geno en elmedio de cultivo, y posteriormente se evaluaron sus propiedades bioactivas. La concentraci√≥n de antioxidantes aument√≥ a lo largo del tiempo decrecimiento como respuesta al estr√©s oxidativo y, por tanto, la producci√≥n de radicales libres. Laaldohexosa glucosa y el fosfato diam√≥nico demostraron ser respectivamente las fuentesde carbono y de nitr√≥geno m√°s apropiadas para aumentar la actividad antioxidante,dando lugar al m√°s alto contenido de compuestos fen√≥licos y valores m√°s bajos de EC50.El empleo de nutrac√©uticos/fitoqu√≠micos puede ser un instrumento eficaz en el mantenimiento y la promoci√≥n de la salud, longevidad y calidad de vida. Los efectos beneficiosos de nutrac√©uticos, sin duda, no s√≥lo tienen un impacto en la terapianutricional, sino que tambi√©n representan un segmento creciente de la actual industria alimentaria. En este sector podr√≠an ubicarse las setas, cuyo empleo como parte de la dieta con fines de promoci√≥n de la salud podr√≠a ser tenido en cuenta a la vista de la variedad de compuestos bioactivos que contienen y los posibles efectos aditivos o sin√©rgicos que pueden existir entre ellos. La investigaci√≥n en curso trata de explorar estaalternativa para, en definitiva, promover nuevas generaciones de alimentos con un valora√Īadido basado en sus propiedades nutritivas y medicinales

    Phytochemicals and their effects on human health

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    The knowledge about the medicinal properties of natural products, including their action as healthy diet promotors, is widely recognized. Currently, the evidences that natural matrices possess specific bioactive properties, afforded by their chemical constituents, have become increasingly clear for the scientific community. Nevertheless, evidences from clinical trials and epidemiologic observations are still demanded namely regarding the ideal time of the treatment and doses of the selected species. Regardless of the increasing recognition of natural matrices health evidences, a higher prevalence of chronic and degenerative diseases have been observed as a direct consequence of the undergoing socioeconomic improvement. The fact that natural matrices are a source of bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, vitamins, carotenoids and unsaturated fatty acids, stimulates its usage in several areas. In addition to the benefits associated with its direct use in the food industry, they may be used as ingredients in the formulation of functional foods, nutraceuticals and in the pharmaceutical industry, for the production of natural drugs (representing a significant portion of the global pharmaceutical market production). Due to the chemical, nutritional and medicinal properties of these matrices, in recent years there has been an increasing interest in exploiting their applications in health disorders conventionally treated with chemically synthesized products. These therapeutic properties associated to the fact that natural products have fewer adverse or side effects have triggered various scientific studies aiming to validate the use of biologically active substances that can be extracted from these valuable natural sources and justify the worthiness of the ongoing and future research in this field.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Innovation in Mediterranean Traditional Foods: Novel Products and Processes: book of abstracts

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    The Mediterranean diet involves a set of skills, knowledge, rituals, symbols and traditions concerning crops, harvesting, fishing, animal husbandry, conservation, processing, cooking, and particularly the sharing and consumption of food. Food is key but does not stand alone. Hence, how can we innovate in mediterranean traditional foods, introducing new products, and process, and still maintain our intangible cultural heritage of (for) humanity? This international conference brought together researchers, industry, professionals, and consumers to share innovative ideas in this field and share results from the research and innovative work being developed across the Mediterranean region with a special focus on the development of: Innovative plant-based dairy analogues; Plant and nut-based flours and development of bakery products and pasta; Innovative added-value traditional ready-to-eat meals. The IMTF - 2022 team would like to thank you for your application to the congress, contributing to its success. The submitted works were received, processed, divided into two main categories (Oral Communications and Posters), and later distributed according to the aforementioned topics. In total, 19 Oral and 24 Panel Communications were presented, joined by 6 Keynotes and 3 Plenary lectures. Once again, we would like to thank you all for attending our congress, and we hope to see you again at future research events.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Advances in Tomato and Tomato Compounds Research and Technology

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    Tomato is the fruit of Solanum lycopersicum L., a Solanaceae crop of worldwide economic importance. Today, there are a large number of tomato cultivars and local varieties with different morphological and sensory characteristics, as well as a wide range of tomato-based foods. These are great dietary sources of micronutrients and bioactive compounds, such as lycopene, vitamins, minerals, and phenolic compounds, which have been linked to many health-promoting effects (1). Several pre- and postharvest efforts have been made to improve the quality of tomato fruit and derived food products, as both tomato production and processing are being carried out under more sustainable and innovative practices. This Research Topic features 12 papers covering relevant subjects, including the production and processing of tomatoes and tomato-based foods and ingredients, as well as the bioaccessibility and health-promoting effects of tomato bioactive compounds. Traditional varieties represent an important component of agricultural biodiversity and play a vital role in the sustainability and security of the agri-food system (2). In this sense, Raig√≥n et al. characterized morphological, nutritional, and chemical characteristics of twoMalacara tomato cultivars (with red and yellow fruits) grown under organic farming conditions. This type of cultivars (‚ÄúCuelga‚ÄĚ) originates from Sierra de C√°diz, Spain, is cultivated and harvested during the summer and tomato trusses are hung from beams in the farmhouses for consumption during the winter; hence the name ‚ÄúCuelga‚ÄĚ which stands for hanging. Themain differences among these small, pallid tomatoes were mainly related to morphological parameters, but also to fiber, minerals (Fe, Mg, Ca), and lycopene contents. 2-Phenylethanol was detected in both Malacara cultivars, and the low concentration of aldehydes in this varietal type could be related to its long shelf-life.The authors are grateful to the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT, Portugal) for financial support through national funds FCT/MCTES (PIDDAC) to CIMO (UIDB/00690/2020 and UIDP/00690/2020) and SusTEC (LA/P/0007/2021) and to FCT for the contracts of JP (CEECIND/01011/2018) and LB (CEEC Institutional).info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Xoconostle fruit (Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa) by-products as potential functional ingredients

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    There is a lack of information on the potential use of xoconostle cultivars as sources of antioxidants for food, pharmaceutical and colorant industries. The aim of this study was to provide a phytochemical characterisation and antioxidant activity evaluation of Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa by-products (epicarp and endocarp mucilage's), in order to evaluate their interest as sources of functional ingredients for human or animal foods. These by-products showed a high content in glucose, citric and linoleic acids, tocopherols, and isorhamnetin-O-(di-deoxyhexosyl-hexoside) (mainly in epicarp), and presented relevant antioxidant properties. The obtained results support the use of O. matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa agro-industrial by-products as functional food ingredients, namely for antioxidant-enriched formulations, instead of being discarded.The authors are grateful to the Foundation for Science and Technology (Portugal) for financial support to CIMO (strategic project Pest-OE/AGR/UI0690/2011) and to L. Barros (researcher contract under ‚ÄúPrograma Compromisso com Ci√™ncia-2008‚ÄĚ). The authors also acknowledge the support of Mexican association CoMenTuna for providing the plant materials

    Propriedades antioxidantes de cogumelos silvestres comestíveis

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    Devido √† grande intensidade de colheita de cogumelos em determinadas regi√Ķes de Portugal e Espanha, o incentivo √† investiga√ß√£o nesta matriz, assume particular destaque, em especial no que concerne ao estudo das propriedades bioactivas. Neste trabalho avaliou-se a actividade antioxidante de cinco esp√©cies diferentes de cogumelos silvestres comest√≠veis provenientes do Nordeste de Portugal, Agaricus arvensis, Lactarius deliciosus, Leucopaxillus giganteus, Sarcodon imbricatus e Tricholoma portentosum. Nas esp√©cies de A. arvensis, L. giganteus e S. imbricatus, efectuaram-se ensaios qu√≠micos e enzim√°ticos para determinar a capacidade de remo√ß√£o de radicais livres, o poder redutor, a inibi√ß√£o da hem√≥lise em eritr√≥citos de animais e a inibi√ß√£o da peroxida√ß√£o lip√≠dica. Procedeu-se tamb√©m √† quantifica√ß√£o de algumas mol√©culas bioactivas, nomeadamente compostos fen√≥licos, √°cido asc√≥rbico, ő≤-caroteno e licopeno, respons√°veis pelas propriedades antioxidantes avaliadas. Verificou-se que o L. giganteus revelou melhores propriedades antioxidantes que o S. imbricatus e A. arvensis, facto que est√° de acordo com o conte√ļdo mais elevado de fen√≥is encontrado na primeira esp√©cie. As quantidades detectadas de √°cido asc√≥rbico, -caroteno e licopeno foram apenas vestigiais. Os diferentes testes de avalia√ß√£o de actividade antioxidante evidenciaram um mecanismo de ac√ß√£o id√™ntico. Foi efectuado tamb√©m um estudo comparativo entre o carp√≥foro inteiro, o chap√©u e o estipe para as esp√©cies de L. deliciosus e T. portentosum. Determinou-se o seu conte√ļdo em fen√≥is totais, poder redutor e capacidade bloqueadora de radicais livres. Ambas as esp√©cies revelaram potencial antioxidante, mas L. deliciosus provou ser a mais activa. A por√ß√£o do cogumelo utilizada tamb√©m teve influ√™ncia nos resultados obtidos, tendo o chap√©u revelado um maior efeito antioxidante relativamente ao estipe

    Chemical composition of Lactarius sp. mushrooms in different maturity stages.

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    Wild mushrooms are becoming more and more important in our diet for fheir nutritional value, inciuding high pratein and low fat/energy contenfs [1], Dikeman et 01, [2] reported lhe effects of stage o f maturity and cooking on the chemical composition of mushroom species commonly cultivated and consumed in the United Sfates, Nevertheless, there are no detailed studies on the influence in fatty acid and sugars pro flles, partic ularly on mushrooms from Northeast Portugal

    Plantas arom√°ticas e medicinais utilizadas em infus√Ķes: estudo comparativo do valor nutricional e contribui√ß√£o energ√©tica

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    As plantas arom√°ticas t√™m vindo a ser tradicionalmente usadas na prepara√ß√£o de infus√Ķes pelo seu aroma atrativo e sabor espec√≠fico, mas tamb√©m na medicina tradicional como agentes carminativos, no combate √† bronquite e √ļlceras, como diur√©ticos, depurativos e verm√≠fugos, e ainda pelas suas propriedades anti-escorb√ļticas, anti-plasm√≥dicas, t√≥nicas, antimicrobianas, anti-inflamat√≥rias, antimutag√©nicas e anti-carcinog√©nicas [1,2]. N√£o obstante, apesar do crescente reconhecimento dos seus efeitos ben√©ficos, tem-se verificado um decr√©scimo na diversidade destas ervas [3]. Para al√©m disso, a maioria dos estudos com plantas consumidas na forma de infus√£o, dispon√≠veis na literatura, n√£o incluem an√°lises em infus√Ķes (que √© a forma realmente consumida), mas apenas em material desidratado. Assim, o presente estudo teve como objetivo disponibiiizar informa√ß√£o relativa ao valor nutricional e contribui√ß√£o energ√©tica de infus√Ķes preparadas a partir de vinte e sete esp√©cies de plantas amplamente consumidas nesta forma, de modo a sistematizar os resultados obtidos para uma compara√ß√£o mais f√°cil. A maioria das infus√Ķes analisadas apresentou frutose, glucose e sacarose em concentra√ß√Ķes muito baixas que variaram entre 6, 15 e 26,80 mg/100 mL, e oito destas infus√Ķes n√£o revelaram a presen√ßa de qualquer a√ß√ļcar livre. Chamaespartium tridentatum (L.) P.E. Gibbs. subsp. cantabricum (Spach) e Equisetum giganteum L. revelaram o maior teor de frutose (13,60 mg/100 mL) e glucose (12,65 mg/100 mL), respetivamente. Relativamente √† sacarose, a maior quantidade foi encontrada em Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. (11,50 mg/100 mL). De entre as infus√Ķes analisadas, Lavandula angustifolia Miller apresentou a maior contribui√ß√£o energ√©tica (107,20 cal/100 mL), enquanto Mentha x piperita L. (25,20 cal/100 mL), Thymus x citriodorus (Pers.) Schreb. (24,60 cal/100 mL) e Thymus mastichina L. (33, 60 cal/100 mL) revelaram a menor energia, sem diferen√ßas estat√≠sticas significativas. Os resultados obtidos no presente estudo de sistematiza√ß√£o ir√£o permitir ao leitor fazer uma f√°cil e r√°pida compara√ß√£o entre estas infus√Ķes de plantas arom√°ticas no que respeita ao seu valor cal√≥rico

    Os contaminantes na colmeia: controlo de resíduos

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    O mel √© um produto alimentar que aufere da sociedade um reconhecimento como produto natural". Este e efectivamente um "r√≥tulo‚ÄĚ que lhe confere vantagens comerciais e que lodos as agentes do sector devem potenciar atrav√©s de um trabalho rigoroso nas metodologias de produ√ß√£o, garantindo a qualidade do produto final

    Herbal infusions for medicinal purposes: comparative study of the nutritional and energetic contribution of twenty-seven aromatic plants

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    Aromatic plants have been used worldwide for centuhes for nutritional and medicinal purposes. They are traditionally used as herbal infusions for their attractive aroma and specific taste but also in folk medicine as carminative agents against bronchitis and ulcers, as diuretics, depuratives and vermifuges, as also for their antiscorbutic, antispasmodic, tonic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and anti-carcinogenic properties [1, 2]. Nevertheless, despite the increasing recognition of their beneficial effects, there is a growing loss of diversity of these herbs [3]. Furthermore, the majority of the studies with plants consumed as infusions that are available in literature do not include analyses in the infusion (which is the real consumed form), but in dry material. Thus, in the present work, we aimed to provide scientific information concerning the nutritional value and energetic contribution of infusions prepared from twenty-seven widely used plant species in order to systematize the results obtained for an easier comparison. Most of the herbal infusions analysed presented fructose, glucose and sucrose in very low amounts, with concentrations ranging from 6. 15 to 26. 80 mg/100 mL, and eight of these infusions did not reveal the presence of any carbohydrate. Chamaespartium tridentatum (L.) P. E. Gibbs. subsp. cantabrícum (Spach) and Equisetum giganteum L. revealed the highest content of fructose (13.60 mg/100 mL) and glucose (12. 65 mg/100 mL), respectively. Regarding to sucrose, the highest concentration was found in Cymbopogon citratus (DC. ) Stapf. (11. 50 mg/100 mL). Among all the infusions, Lavandula angustifolia Miller gave the highest energetic contribution (107. 20 cal/100 mL), whereas Mentha x piperita L. (25. 20 cal/100 mL), Thymus x citriodorus (Pers. ) Schreb. (24. 60 cal/100 mL) and Thymus mastichina L. (33. 60 cal/100 mL) presented the lowest energy, without significant statistical differences. The results obtained in the present systematization study will allow the readers to perform easy and quick comparisons among these different aromatic plant infusions regarding nutritional purposes
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