177 research outputs found

    Scotland’s Geodiversity Charter: a step forward for Scottish Geoparks

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    Scotland’s Geodiversity Charter was launched in June 2012 to demonstrate and promote the wider values of Scotland’s geological heritage. The four main aims of the charter are to raise awareness of the importance of geodiversity, integrate geodiversity into relevant policies, conserve and enhance geodiversity, and to improve our understanding of the wider role of geodiversity. Led by the voluntary geoconservation sector through the Scottish Geodiversity Forum, the Charter has over 45 signatories to date including public bodies, NGOs, industry and landowner representatives, geoconservation groups and Geoparks. Both Shetland Geopark and North West Highlands Geopark are actively embracing the aims of the charter, primarily by raising awareness of geodiversity and through the integration of geoconservation into relevant policies, both locally and regionally. Ultimately, Scotland’s Geodiversity Charter will encourage a large number of stakeholders to work together to provide positive benefits for both people and the environment

    Deep geothermal energy potential in Scotland

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    Geothermal energy is simply the natural heat that exists within our planet. In some parts of the world the existence of a geothermal energy resource is made obvious by the presence of hot springs, and such resources have been exploited in various ways for millennia. More usually, there is no direct evidence at Earth‘s surface of the vast reservoir of stored heat below, and geothermal energy has remained largely ignored and untapped in most parts of the world. Now, its potential as a renewable source of energy is being recognised increasingly, and technologies and concepts for exploiting it are developing rapidly along two lines: low enthalpy (low temperature) resources, which exploit warm water in the shallow subsurface to provide heat either directly (as warm water) or indirectly (via heat exchange systems); and high enthalpy (high temperature) resources, which yield hot water, usually from deeper levels, that can be used to generate electricity. The potential for harnessing electricity from geothermal energy has long been recognised; the potentially substantial reserves, minimal environmental impact, and capacity to contribute continuously to base load electricity supply make it an extremely attractive prospect. The ongoing drive to develop renewable sources of energy, coupled with anticipated technological developments that will in future reduce the depth at which heat reservoirs are considered economically viable, means there is now a pressing need to know more about the deep geothermal energy potential in Scotland. This report contains the British Geological Survey (BGS) contribution to a collaborative project between AECOM and BGS to produce a qualitative assessment of deep geothermal energy potential in onshore Scotland for the Scottish Government. BGS‘s role is to provide the Stage One deliverable ―Identifying and assessing geothermal energy potential‖, comprising an assessment of areas in Scotland most likely to hold deep geothermal resources based on existing geological and geothermal data sets. The report is divided into two parts. Part 1 sets out the background to geothermal energy, describes the geological context, and presents an analysis of the size and accessibility of the heat resource in Scotland based on existing geothermal data. The potential for exploiting deep geothermal energy in three settings in inshore areas of Scotland (abandoned mine workings, Hot Sedimentary Aquifers, and Hot Dry Rocks) is examined in Part 2

    The International Appalachian Trail: the ancient Appalachians as ambassador of the geosciences to modern societies

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    Throughout human history, the geological foundation of our landscape has determined the location of settlements, trade routes, and human migratory paths, inextricably linking our culture to geology. The International Appalachian Trail (IAT) addresses our common geoheritage by establishing a long-distance walking trail that extends beyond borders to all geographic regions once connected by the “Appalachian Mountain” range, formed more than 300 million years ago on the super-continent Pangaea. In addition to connecting people and places, the goal of the IAT is to promote natural and cultural heritage, health and fitness, environmental stewardship, fellowship and understanding, cross-border cooperation, and rural economic development through eco-recreation. The IAT was founded on “Earth Day” in Maine, USA, in 1994 and currently includes 21 Chapters representing an estimated 12,000 miles of trail along the ancient Appalachian terranes rimming the North Atlantic. A work in progress, the development of the IAT continues as individual Chapters: (1) construct a long-distance walking trail; (2) locate the IAT within areas that have been identified by geologists as having been part of the ancient Appalachian/Caledonian landscape; (3) locate the IAT so that it connects to bordering Chapters; (4) make available to the public map and trail descriptions of the IAT within its jurisdiction via the IAT web site; and (5) produce educational web site trail guides. In Europe, the IAT has been a natural fit, both in terms of mission and geography, with Geoparks. The IAT provides an excellent opportunity for earth scientists to participate in this unique recreational/educational project and to engage the public in a discussion of the geological foundations of modern society

    Mine water characterisation and monitoring borehole GGA05, UK Geoenergy Observatory, Glasgow

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    This report and accompanying data release describe the ‘as-built’ borehole GGA05 at the UK Geoenergy Observatory in Glasgow, as well as summarising hydrogeological testing and an initial geological interpretation. Mine water borehole GGA05 at the UK Geoenergy Observatory in Glasgow is screened across the Glasgow Main mine working void and overlying sandstone roof. The mine working is a water-filled void and initial hydrogeological indications from the test pumping are of a very high yielding borehole. Borehole GGA05 has ERT and DTS cables installed between the borehole casing and the rock wall and has a hydrogeological data logger installed within the borehole

    Mine water characterisation and monitoring borehole GGA04, UK Geoenergy Observatory, Glasgow

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    This report and accompanying data release describe the ‘as-built’ borehole GGA04 at the UK Geoenergy Observatory in Glasgow, as well as summarising hydrogeological testing and an initial geological interpretation. Mine water borehole GGA04 at the UK Geoenergy Observatory in Glasgow is screened across the Glasgow Upper coal and overlying sandstone roof. The borehole was drilled within an area of stoop (pillar) and room mine workings and is interpreted to have hit a coal pillar or partially collapsed pillar and a possibly fractured sandstone roof. It can be used for characterising and monitoring a fractured rock mass within a mine working area. Initial hydrogeological indications from the test pumping indicate that borehole GGA04 is high yielding. Borehole GGA04 has ERT and DTS cables installed between the borehole casing and the rock wall and has a hydrogeological data logger installed within the borehole

    Mine water characterisation and monitoring borehole GGA01, UK Geoenergy Observatory, Glasgow.

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    This report and accompanying data release describe the ‘as-built’ borehole GGA01 at the UK Geoenergy Observatory in Glasgow, as well as summarising hydrogeological testing and an initial geological interpretation. Mine water borehole GGA01 at the UK Geoenergy Observatory in Glasgow is screened across the Glasgow Upper mine working and overlying sandstone roof. The mine working is interpreted to be filled with a loosely packed mine waste. Hydrogeological evidence from test pumping indicates that the borehole is very high yielding. Borehole GGA01 has ERT and DTS cables installed between the borehole casing and the rock wall and has a hydrogeological data logger installed within the borehole

    Environmental baseline characterisation and monitoring borehole GGA06r, UK Geoenergy Observatory, Glasgow

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    This report and accompanying data release describe the ‘as-built’ borehole GGA06r at the UK Geoenergy Observatory in Glasgow, as well as summarising hydrogeological testing and an initial geological interpretation. Environmental baseline characterisation and monitoring borehole GGA06r at the UK Geoenergy Observatory in Glasgow is screened across a coarse sand and gravel in the superficial deposits. The borehole has proved to be low yielding on initial hydrogeological testing and has a hydrogeological data logger installed

    Mine water characterisation and monitoring borehole GGA08, UK Geoenergy Observatory, Glasgow

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    This report and accompanying data release describe the ‘as-built’ borehole GGA08 at the UK Geoenergy Observatory in Glasgow. They also describe initial hydrogeological testing completed after borehole construction and provide an initial geological interpretation. Mine water characterisation and monitoring borehole GGA08 at the UK Geoenergy Observatory in Glasgow is screened across the Glasgow Main mine working and overlying sandstone roof. The mine working is interpreted as a roadway with a void, mine waste and wood encountered. Initial hydrogeological indications from the test pumping suggest borehole GGA08 is very high yielding. Borehole GGA08 has ERT and DTS cables installed between the borehole casing and the surrounding rock, and a hydrogeological data logger installed within the borehole

    Borehole GGA02, UK Geoenergy Observatory, Glasgow

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    This report and accompanying data release describe the ‘as-built’ borehole GGA02 at the UK Geoenergy Observatory in Glasgow, as well as summarising an initial geological interpretation. Mine water borehole GGA02 at the UK Geoenergy Observatory in Glasgow encountered the Glasgow Upper and Glasgow Ell mine workings and was screened across an interval interpreted as a completely collapsed Glasgow Main mine working and overlying sandstone roof. Unfortunately, grout entered the inside of the casing in the final stages of borehole construction, cementing up the screened section and resulting in GGA02 being repurposed as a cased, sensor testing borehole. New sensors can be tested inside the uPVC casing to 67.2 m drilled depth. Hydrogeological testing of GGA02 was not possible. Borehole GGA02 has a number of types of sensor cabling installed. Fibre-optic DTS cable is installed between the bedrock uPVC borehole casing and the rock wall with capability to work in passive (monitoring) mode to 72.65 m drilled depth. Fibre-optic cabling is also installed on the outside of the steel superficial deposits casing with the ability for use in active or passive mode. Electrical resistivity tomography cable with the deepest sensor placed at 85.58 m drilled depth is available for cross-borehole monitoring and imaging with the adjacent borehole GGA01

    Environmental baseline characterisation and monitoring borehole GGB04, UK Geoenergy Observatory, Glasgow

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    This report and accompanying data release describe the ‘as-built’ borehole GGB04 at the UK Geoenergy Observatory in Glasgow, as well as summarising hydrogeological testing and an initial geological interpretation. Environmental baseline characterisation and monitoring borehole GGB04 at the UK Geoenergy Observatory in Glasgow is screened across a sand and gravel unit in the upper part of the superficial deposits. Hydrogeological evidence from test pumping indicates that the borehole is very low yielding. There is a hydrogeological data logger installed in the borehole
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