924 research outputs found

    Risk factors for infection with Giardia duodenalis in pre-school children in the city of Salvador, Brazil.

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    A cross-sectional study of 694 children aged 2 to 45 months selected from 30 clusters throughout the city of Salvador, Bahia (pop. 2.3 million) was carried out as part of a longitudinal study of diarrhoea in order to identify risk factors for infection with Giardia duodenalis. Variables studied included three social and demographic factors (such as mother's education and marital status), five relating to the peri-domestic environment (rubbish disposal, open sewers, paving of the street), seven relating to the home itself (house construction, susceptibility to flooding, water supply and sanitation) as well as a score for hygiene behaviour based on structured observation. After multivariate analysis using a hierarchical model, only four significant risk factors were found: (a) number of children in the household under five years (b) rubbish not collected from the house (c) presence of visible sewage nearby, and (d) absence of a toilet. All four were significant at the 1% level

    Effect of urban vs. rural residence on the association between atopy and wheeze in Latin America: findings from a case-control analysis.

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    BACKGROUND: The association between atopy and asthma is attenuated in non-affluent populations, an effect that may be explained by childhood infections such as geohelminths. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between atopy and wheeze in schoolchildren living in urban and rural areas of Ecuador and examine the effects of geohelminths on this association. METHODS: We performed nested case-control studies among comparable populations of schoolchildren living in rural communities and urban neighbourhoods in the Province of Esmeraldas, Ecuador. We detected geohelminths in stool samples, measured recent wheeze and environmental exposures by parental questionnaire, and atopy by specific IgE (sIgE) and skin prick test (SPT) reactivity to aeroallergens. RESULTS: Atopy, particularly sIgE to house dust mite (HDM), was more strongly associated with recent wheeze in urban than rural schoolchildren: (urban, adj. OR 5.19, 95% CI 3.37-8.00, P < 0.0001; rural, adj. OR 1.81, 95%CI 1.09-2.99, P = 0.02; interaction, P < 0.001). The population fractions of wheeze attributable to atopy were approximately two-fold greater in urban schoolchildren: SPT to any allergen (urban 23.5% vs. rural 10.1%), SPT to HDM (urban 18.5% vs. rural 9.6%), and anti-HDM IgE (urban 26.5% vs. rural 10.5%), while anti-Ascaris IgE was related to wheeze in a high proportion of rural (49.7%) and urban (35.4%) children. The association between atopy and recent wheeze was attenuated by markers of geohelminth infections. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that urban residence modifies the association between HDM atopy and recent wheeze, and this effect is explained partly by geohelminth infections

    Validation of a food frequency questionnaire for children and adolescents aged 4 to 11 years living in Salvador, Bahia.

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    OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) by applying it to children and adolescents living in Salvador, Bahia. METHODS: The validity of this FFQ with 98 food items was investigated among 108 children and adolescents who were selected from a sample of 1445 that had been planned for a study on the risk factors for asthma and other allergic diseases. The adults responsible for these children and adolescents gave responses for a 24-hour recall (R24h) and an FFQ. The average energy and nutrient values from the FFQ were compared with those from the R24h by means of the paired t test and Pearson correlation coefficients. The concordance was evaluated using the Bland-Altman method and kappa statistics. RESULTS: The energy and nutrient intake estimated using the FFQ was significantly higher than what was obtained using the R24h. The correlation coefficients adjusted for energy were statistically significant for protein, fat, vitamin C and zinc. The weighted kappa values ranged from 0.06 for vitamin A (p = 0.24) to 0.34 for energy (p < 0.00). The results from the Bland-Altman plots for lipid, protein and zinc showed the most significant validity parameters, and zinc was found to show the best concordance. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the FFQ showed satisfactory validity for use in studies involving children and adolescents

    Rural to urban migration is associated with increased prevalence of childhood wheeze in a Latin-American city.

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    INTRODUCTION: The urbanisation process has been associated with increases in asthma prevalence in urban and rural areas of low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, although rural to urban migration and migration between cities are considered important determinants of this process, few studies have evaluated the effects of internal migration on asthma in urban populations of LMICs. The present study evaluated the effects of internal migration on the prevalence of wheeze in an urban area of Latin America. METHODS: We did a cross-sectional analysis of 2510 schoolchildren living in the city of Esmeraldas, Ecuador. Logistic regression was used to analyse associations between childhood wheeze and different aspects of migration among schoolchildren. RESULTS: 31% of schoolchildren were migrants. Rural to urban migrants had a higher prevalence of wheeze, (adj.OR=2.01,95% CI1.30 to 3.01, p=0.001) compared with non-migrants. Age of migration and time since migration were associated with wheeze only for rural to urban migrants but not for urban to urban migrants. Children who had migrated after 3 years of age had a greater risk of wheeze (OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.56 to 3.97, p=0.001) than non-migrants while migrants with less than 5 years living in the new residence had a higher prevalence of wheeze than non-migrants (<3 years: OR=2.34, 95% CI 1.26 to 4.33, p<0.007 and 3-5 years: OR=3.03, 95% CI 1.49 to 6.15, p<0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence that rural to urban migration is associated with an increase in the prevalence of wheeze among schoolchildren living in a Latin-American city. Age of migration and time since migration were important determinants of wheeze only among migrants from rural areas. A better understanding of the social and environmental effects of internal migration could improve our understanding of the causes of the increase in asthma and differences in prevalence between urban and rural populations

    Cohort Profile: The Ecuador Life (ECUAVIDA) study in Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador.

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    The ECUAVIDA birth cohort is studying the impact of exposures to soil-transmitted helminth (STH) parasites and early-life microbial exposures on the development of atopy, allergic diseases and immune responses in childhood. A total of 2404 newborns were recruited between 2006 and 2009 in a public hospital serving the rural district of Quininde, Esmeraldas Province, in a tropical region of coastal Ecuador. Detailed measurements were done around the time of the birth, at 7 and 13 months and at 2 and 3 years, and data collection is ongoing at 5 and 8 years. Data being collected include questionnaires for: sociodemographic, lifestyle, psychosocial (at 4-6 years only) and dietary (at 6-7 years only) factors; childhood morbidity and clinical outcomes; stool samples for parasites; blood samples for DNA, measurements of vaccine responses and other measures of immune function/inflammation; and anthropometrics. Allergen skin prick test reactivity is done from 2 years and measures of airway function and inflammation at 8 years

    Public health and epidemiology journals published in Brazil and other Portuguese speaking countries

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    It is well known that papers written in languages other than English have a great risk of being ignored simply because these languages are not accessible to the international scientific community. The objective of this paper is to facilitate the access to the public health and epidemiology literature available in Portuguese speaking countries. It was found that it is particularly concentrated in Brazil, with some few examples in Portugal and none in other Portuguese speaking countries. This literature is predominantly written in Portuguese, but also in other languages such as English or Spanish. The paper describes the several journals, as well as the bibliographic databases that index these journals and how to access them. Most journals provide open-access with direct links in the indexing databases. The importance of this scientific production for the development of epidemiology as a scientific discipline and as a basic discipline for public health practice is discussed. To marginalize these publications has implications for a more balanced knowledge and understanding of the health problems and their determinants at a world-wide level

    Tuberculosis/HIV/AIDS coinfection in Porto Alegre, RS/Brazil - invisibility and silencing of the most affected groups

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    OBJECTIVE: To analyze how belonging to certain social groups contributes to constituting the vulnerabilities associated with illnesses due to tuberculosis/HIV/AIDS coinfection. METHODOLOGYThis is a qualitative study carried out in the city of Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, in regions of high social vulnerability. Twenty coinfected people were interviewed in specialized health services between August and December 2016. The analysis was based on the frameworks The Sound of Silence and Vulnerability and Human Rights. RESULTS: Socioeconomic conditions were decisive for the constitution of the vulnerability conditions. Processes of people invisibilization, and the silencing of their voices, in a scenario marked by economic, racial and gender inequalities, contributed for their health needs not to be understood and effectively taken into account in the services actions. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: The more effective strategies are to legitimize voices and to understand the needs of those affected by coinfection, the greater the chances that programmatic responses to the problem will be successful

    Trends in method-specific suicide in Brazil from 2000 to 2017

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    Purpose: Understanding long-term patterns of suicide methods can inform public health policy and prevention strategies. In Brazil, firearm-related policies may be one salient target for suicide prevention. This study describes trends in method-specific suicide at the national and state-levels in Brazil, with a particular focus on firearm-related suicides. / Methods: Brazilian mortality data for suicide and undetermined intent among people aged 10 years and older between 2000 and 2017 were obtained from the National Mortality Information System. We examined national and state-level trends in age-standardised suicide rates for hanging, self-poisoning, firearms, jumping from a high place, other, and unspecified methods. We also compared total rates of mortality from suicide and undetermined intent over the period. Applying Joinpoint regression, we tested changes in trends of firearm-specific suicide rates. / Results: The total suicide rate increased between 2000 and 2017. Rates of hanging, self-poisoning by drugs or alcohol and jumping from a high place showed the largest increases, while firearm-specific suicide rates decreased over the study period. Trends in methods of suicide varied by sex and state. / Conclusion: It is of public health concern that suicide rates in Brazil have risen this millennium. Restricting access to firearms might be an effective approach for reducing firearm-specific suicides, especially in states where firearm availability remains particularly high. Treatment and management of substance misuse may also be an important target for suicide prevention policies. More work is needed to understand the causes of rising suicide rates in Brazil and to improve the mental health of the population

    Association between homicide rates and suicide rates: a countrywide longitudinal analysis of 5507 Brazilian municipalities

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    Objective: To estimate the association between homicide and suicide rates in Brazilian municipalities over a period of 7 years. / Design: We conducted a longitudinal ecological study using annual mortality data from 5507 Brazilian municipalities between 2008 and 2014. Multivariable negative binomial regression models were used to examine the relationship between homicide and suicide rates. Robustness of results was explored using sensitivity analyses to examine the influence of data quality, population size, age and sex on the relationship between homicide and suicide rates. / Setting: A nationwide study of municipality-level data. / Participants: Mortality data and corresponding population estimates for municipal populations aged 10 years and older. / Primary and secondary outcome measures: Age-standardised suicide rates per 100 000. / Results: Municipal suicide rates were positively associated with municipal homicide rates; after adjusting for socioeconomic and demographic factors, a doubling of the homicide rate was associated with 22% increase in suicide rate (rate ratio=1.22, 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.33). A dose–response effect was observed with 4% increase in suicide rates at the third quintile, 9% at the fourth quintile and 12% at the highest quintile of homicide rates compared with the lowest quintile. The observed effect estimates were robust to sensitivity analyses. / Conclusions: Municipalities with higher homicide rates have higher suicide rates and the relationship between homicide and suicide rates in Brazil exists independently of many sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors. Our results are in line with the hypothesis that changes in homicide rates lead to changes in suicide rates, although a causal association cannot be established from this study. Suicide and homicide rates have increased in Brazil despite increased community mental health support and incarceration, respectively; therefore, new avenues for intervention are needed. The identification of a positive relationship between homicide and suicide rates suggests that population-based interventions to reduce homicide rates may also reduce suicide rates in Brazil
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