1,705 research outputs found

    Fish mitigate trophic depletion in marine cave ecosystems.

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    Dark marine habitats are often characterized by a food-limited condition. Peculiar dark habitats include marine caves, characterized by the absence of light and limited water flow, which lead to reduced fluxes of organic matter for cave-dwelling organisms. We investigated whether the most abundant and common cave-dwelling fish Apogon imberbis has the potential to play the role of trophic vector in Mediterranean marine caves. We first analysed stomach contents to check whether repletion changes according to a nycthemeral cycle. We then identified the prey items, to see whether they belong to species associated with cave habitats or not. Finally, we assessed whether A. imberbis moves outside marine caves at night to feed, by collecting visual census data on A. imberbis density both inside and outside caves, by day and by night. The stomach repletion of individuals sampled early in the morning was significantly higher than later in the day. Most prey were typical of habitats other than caves. A. imberbis was on average more abundant within caves during the day and outside during the night. Our study supports the hypothesis regarding the crucial trophic role of A. imberbis in connecting Mediterranean marine caves with external habitat

    Motoneuron deafferentation and gliosis occur in association with neuromuscular regressive changes during ageing in mice

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    Background The cellular mechanisms underlying the age‐associated loss of muscle mass and function (sarcopenia) are poorly understood, hampering the development of effective treatment strategies. Here, we performed a detailed characterization of age‐related pathophysiological changes in the mouse neuromuscular system. Methods Young, adult, middle‐aged, and old (1, 4, 14, and 24-30 months old, respectively) C57BL/6J mice were used. Motor behavioural and electrophysiological tests and histological and immunocytochemical procedures were carried out to simultaneously analyse structural, molecular, and functional age‐related changes in distinct cellular components of the neuromuscular system. Results Ageing was not accompanied by a significant loss of spinal motoneurons (MNs), although a proportion (~15%) of them in old mice exhibited an abnormally dark appearance. Dark MNs were also observed in adult (~9%) and young (~4%) animals, suggesting that during ageing, some MNs undergo early deleterious changes, which may not lead to MN death. Old MNs were depleted of cholinergic and glutamatergic inputs (~40% and ~45%, respectively, P < 0.01), suggestive of age‐associated alterations in MN excitability. Prominent microgliosis and astrogliosis [~93% (P < 0.001) and ~100% (P < 0.0001) increase vs. adults, respectively] were found in old spinal cords, with increased density of pro‐inflammatory M1 microglia and A1 astroglia (25‐fold and 4‐fold increase, respectively, P < 0.0001). Ageing resulted in significant reductions in the nerve conduction velocity and the compound muscle action potential amplitude (~30%, P < 0.05, vs. adults) in old distal plantar muscles. Compared with adult muscles, old muscles exhibited significantly higher numbers of both denervated and polyinnervated neuromuscular junctions, changes in fibre type composition, higher proportion of fibres showing central nuclei and lipofuscin aggregates, depletion of satellite cells, and augmented expression of different molecules related to development, plasticity, and maintenance of neuromuscular junctions, including calcitonin gene‐related peptide, growth associated protein 43, agrin, fibroblast growth factor binding protein 1, and transforming growth factor‐ÎČ1. Overall, these alterations occurred at varying degrees in all the muscles analysed, with no correlation between the age‐related changes observed and myofiber type composition or muscle topography. Conclusions Our data provide a global view of age‐associated neuromuscular changes in a mouse model of ageing and help to advance understanding of contributing pathways leading to development of sarcopenia.This work was supported by Abbott and a grant from the Ministerio de Ciencia, InnovaciĂłn y Universidades cofinancedby Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (RTI2018-099278-B-I00 to J.C. and J.E.

    Toward a Density Functional Description of Liquid pH(2)

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    A finite-temperature density functional approach to describe the properties of parahydrogen in the liquid-vapor coexistence region is presented. The first proposed functional is zero-range, where the density-gradient term is adjusted so as to reproduce the surface tension of the liquid-vapor interface at low temperature. The second functional is finite-range and, while it is fitted to reproduce bulk pH(2) properties only, it is shown to yield surface properties in good agreement with experiments. These functionals are used to study the surface thickness of the liquid-vapor interface, the wetting transition of parahydrogen on a planar Rb model surface, and homogeneous cavitation in bulk liquid pH(2)

    Measurement of the cross-section and charge asymmetry of WW bosons produced in proton-proton collisions at s=8\sqrt{s}=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    This paper presents measurements of the W+→Ό+ÎœW^+ \rightarrow \mu^+\nu and W−→Ό−ΜW^- \rightarrow \mu^-\nu cross-sections and the associated charge asymmetry as a function of the absolute pseudorapidity of the decay muon. The data were collected in proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC and correspond to a total integrated luminosity of 20.2~\mbox{fb^{-1}}. The precision of the cross-section measurements varies between 0.8% to 1.5% as a function of the pseudorapidity, excluding the 1.9% uncertainty on the integrated luminosity. The charge asymmetry is measured with an uncertainty between 0.002 and 0.003. The results are compared with predictions based on next-to-next-to-leading-order calculations with various parton distribution functions and have the sensitivity to discriminate between them.Comment: 38 pages in total, author list starting page 22, 5 figures, 4 tables, submitted to EPJC. All figures including auxiliary figures are available at https://atlas.web.cern.ch/Atlas/GROUPS/PHYSICS/PAPERS/STDM-2017-13

    Search for chargino-neutralino production with mass splittings near the electroweak scale in three-lepton final states in √s=13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector