2,317 research outputs found

    The College News, 1936-04-08, Vol. 22, No. 19

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    Bryn Mawr College student newspaper. Merged with The Haverford News in 1968 to form the Bi-college News (with various titles from 1968 on). Published weekly (except holidays) during the academic year

    Genetic and Other Contributions to Alcohol Intake in Rhesus Macaques ( Macaca mulatta )

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    The etiology of alcoholism and alcohol abuse, like many other complex diseases, is heterogeneous and multifactorial. Numerous studies demonstrate a genetic contribution to variation in the expression of alcohol-related disorders in humans. Over the past decade, nonhuman primates have emerged as a valuable model for some aspects of human alcohol abuse because of their phylogenetic proximity to humans. Long-term, longitudinal studies of rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ) have provided much insight into environmental influences, especially early life experiences, on alcohol consumption and behavior patterns that characterize alcohol intake later in life. It is not known, however, whether there is a genetic component as well to the variation seen in alcohol consumption in rhesus macaques. A significant genetic component to variation in alcohol consumption in rhesus macaques would show for the first time that like humans, for nonhuman primates additive genetic influences are important. Moreover, their use as a model for alcohol-related disorders in humans would have even greater relevance and utility for designing experiments incorporating the expanding molecular genetics field, and allow researchers to investigate the interaction among the known environmental influences and various genotypes. Methods : In this study, we investigate factors contributing to variation in alcohol consumption of 156 rhesus macaques collected over 10 years when subjects were adolescent in age, belonging to a single extended pedigree, with each cohort receiving identical early rearing backgrounds and subsequent treatments. To measure alcohol consumption each animal was provided unfettered simultaneous access both to an aspartame-sweetened 8.4% (v/v) alcohol-water solution, the aspartame-sweetened vehicle, and to water for 1 hour each day during the early afternoon between 13:00 and 15:00 in their home cages for a period of 5 to 7 weeks. We use multiple regression to identify factors that significantly affect alcohol consumption among these animals and a maximum likelihood program (ASReml) that, controlling for the significant factors, estimates the genetic contribution to the variance in alcohol consumption. Results : Multiple regression analysis identified test cohort and rearing environment as contributing to 57 and 2%, respectively, of the total variance in alcohol consumption. Of the remaining 41% of the variance about half (19.8%) was attributable to additive genetic effects using a maximum likelihood program. Conclusion : This study demonstrates that, as in humans, there are additive genetic factors that contribute to variation in alcohol consumption in rhesus macaques, with other nongenetic factors accounting for substantial portions of the variance in alcohol consumption, Our findings show the presence of an additive genetic component and suggest the potential utility of the nonhuman primate as a molecular genetics tool for understanding alcohol abuse and alcoholism.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/66182/1/j.1530-0277.2006.00044.x.pd

    Axion Protection from Flavor

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    The QCD axion fails to solve the strong CP problem unless all explicit PQ violating, Planck-suppressed, dimension n<10 operators are forbidden or have exponentially small coefficients. We show that all theories with a QCD axion contain an irreducible source of explicit PQ violation which is proportional to the determinant of the Yukawa interaction matrix of colored fermions. Generically, this contribution is of low operator dimension and will drastically destabilize the axion potential, so its suppression is a necessary condition for solving the strong CP problem. We propose a mechanism whereby the PQ symmetry is kept exact up to n=12 with the help of the very same flavor symmetries which generate the hierarchical quark masses and mixings of the SM. This "axion flavor protection" is straightforwardly realized in theories which employ radiative fermion mass generation and grand unification. A universal feature of this construction is that the heavy quark Yukawa couplings are generated at the PQ breaking scale.Comment: 16 pages, 2 figure

    Pleosporales

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    One hundred and five generic types of Pleosporales are described and illustrated. A brief introduction and detailed history with short notes on morphology, molecular phylogeny as well as a general conclusion of each genus are provided. For those genera where the type or a representative specimen is unavailable, a brief note is given. Altogether 174 genera of Pleosporales are treated. Phaeotrichaceae as well as Kriegeriella, Zeuctomorpha and Muroia are excluded from Pleosporales. Based on the multigene phylogenetic analysis, the suborder Massarineae is emended to accommodate five families, viz. Lentitheciaceae, Massarinaceae, Montagnulaceae, Morosphaeriaceae and Trematosphaeriaceae

    Diagnosing Spin at the LHC via Vector Boson Fusion

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    We propose a new technique for determining the spin of new massive particles that might be discovered at the Large Hadron Collider. The method relies on pair-production of the new particles in a kinematic regime where the vector boson fusion production mechanism is enhanced. For this regime, we show that the distribution of the leading jets as a function of their relative azimuthal angle can be used to distinguish spin-0 from spin-1/2 particles. We illustrate this effect by considering the particular cases of (i) strongly-interacting, stable particles and (ii) supersymmetric particles carrying color charge. We argue that this method should be applicable in a wide range of new physics scenarios.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figure

    Frequent use of paracetamol and risk of allergic disease among women in an Ethiopian population

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    Introduction The hypothesis that paracetamol might increase the risk of asthma and other allergic diseases have gained support from a range of independent studies. However, in studies based in developed countries, the possibility that paracetamol and asthma are associated through aspirin avoidance is difficult to exclude. Objectives To explore this hypothesis among women in a developing country, where we have previously reported aspirin avoidance to be rare. Methods In 2005/6 a population based cohort of 1065 pregnant women was established in Butajira, Ethiopia and baseline demographic data collected. At 3 years post birth, an interview-based questionnaire administered to 945 (94%) of these women collected data on asthma, eczema, and hay fever in the past 12 month, frequency of paracetamol use and potential confounders. Allergen skin tests to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and cockroach were also performed. The independent effects of paracetamol use on allergic outcomes were determined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Findings The prevalence of asthma, eczema and hay fever was 1.7%, 0.9% and 3.8% respectively; of any one of these conditions 5.5%, and of allergen sensitization 7.8%. Paracetamol use in the past month was reported by 29%, and associations of borderline significance were seen for eczema (adjusted OR (95% CI) = 8.51 (1.68 to 43.19) for 1–3 tablets and 2.19 (0.36 to 13.38) for ≥4 tablets, compared to no tablets in the past month; overall p = 0.055) and for ‘any allergic condition’ (adjusted OR (95% CI) = 2.73 (1.22 to 6.11) for 1–3 tablets and 1.35 (0.67 to 2.70) for ≥4 tablets compared to 0 in the past month; overall p = 0.071). Conclusions This study provides further cross-sectional evidence that paracetamol use increases the risk of allergic disease

    Provenance and depositional variability of the Thin Mud Facies in the lower Ganges-Brahmaputra delta,West Bengal Sundarbans, India

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    The Sundarbans is one of the largest coastal wetland sites in the world and covers an area of approximately one million hectares of the western delta of the Ganges and Brahmaputra (G-B) rivers (located across Bangladesh and India). Since the late Holocene, the western delta has not been directly fluvially sourced, due to the Ganges shift to the east (present-day Bangladesh). The depositional facies (Thin Mud Facies) of the late-Holocene abandoned western region (The Sundarbans) is derived from dominant estuary-tidal dynamics, however the provenance of the associated TMF sedimentation in this far western zone (Indian Sundarbans per se) is as yet equivocal. In this study, sediment cores from the Indian Sundarbans (Saptamukhi-Thakuran estuary) were closely examined for grain-size distributions (GSDs), mineralogy through X-ray diffraction (XRD), and geochemistry with X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The TMF in the West Bengal Sundarbans has been determined to show intensively weathered, terrestrial sediment, derived principally from the Ganges Alluvial Plain (GAP). There is a predominance of quartz, mica and clay minerals, with quartz interpreted as a product of low-relief tropical weathering sourced via the G-B Rivers draining the Himalayas. Lithofacies interpreted through GSD analysis of the TMF is indicative of a muddy tidal flat environment with aggradation and a general fining-up trend between the adjacent estuaries. The sediment provenance indicates a continuing G-B sediment source, which moves westward along the Bay of Bengal, from the active delta front and is then reworked over the far-western abandoned delta by tidal–estuarine forcing

    Can ultrasound be used to stimulate nerve tissue?

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    BACKGROUND: The stimulation of nerve or cortical tissue by magnetic induction is a relatively new tool for the non-invasive study of the brain and nervous system. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), for example, has been used for the functional mapping of the motor cortex and may have potential for treating a variety of brain disorders. METHODS AND RESULTS: A new method of stimulating active tissue is proposed by propagating ultrasound in the presence of a magnetic field. Since tissue is conductive, particle motion created by an ultrasonic wave will induce an electric current density generated by Lorentz forces. An analytical derivation is given for the electric field distribution induced by a collimated ultrasonic beam. An example shows that peak electric fields of up to 8 V/m appear to be achievable at the upper range of diagnostic intensities. This field strength is about an order of magnitude lower than fields typically associated with TMS; however, the electric field gradients induced by ultrasound can be quite high (about 60 kV/m(2 )at 4 MHz), which theoretically play a more important role in activation than the field magnitude. The latter value is comparable to TMS-induced gradients. CONCLUSION: The proposed method could be used to locally stimulate active tissue by inducing an electric field in regions where the ultrasound is focused. Potential advantages of this method compared to TMS is that stimulation of cortical tissue could be highly localized as well as achieved at greater depths in the brain than is currently possible with TMS

    The Cosmology of Composite Inelastic Dark Matter

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    Composite dark matter is a natural setting for implementing inelastic dark matter - the O(100 keV) mass splitting arises from spin-spin interactions of constituent fermions. In models where the constituents are charged under an axial U(1) gauge symmetry that also couples to the Standard Model quarks, dark matter scatters inelastically off Standard Model nuclei and can explain the DAMA/LIBRA annual modulation signal. This article describes the early Universe cosmology of a minimal implementation of a composite inelastic dark matter model where the dark matter is a meson composed of a light and a heavy quark. The synthesis of the constituent quarks into dark mesons and baryons results in several qualitatively different configurations of the resulting dark matter hadrons depending on the relative mass scales in the system.Comment: 31 pages, 4 figures; references added, typos correcte

    Time preferences and risk aversion: tests on domain differences

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    The design and evaluation of environmental policy requires the incorporation of time and risk elements as many environmental outcomes extend over long time periods and involve a large degree of uncertainty. Understanding how individuals discount and evaluate risks with respect to environmental outcomes is a prime component in designing effective environmental policy to address issues of environmental sustainability, such as climate change. Our objective in this study is to investigate whether subjects' time preferences and risk aversion across the monetary domain and the environmental domain differ. Crucially, our experimental design is incentivized: in the monetary domain, time preferences and risk aversion are elicited with real monetary payoffs, whereas in the environmental domain, we elicit time preferences and risk aversion using real (bee-friendly) plants. We find that subjects' time preferences are not significantly different across the monetary and environmental domains. In contrast, subjects' risk aversion is significantly different across the two domains. More specifically, subjects (men and women) exhibit a higher degree of risk aversion in the environmental domain relative to the monetary domain. Finally, we corroborate earlier results, which document that women are more risk averse than men in the monetary domain. We show this finding to, also, hold in the environmental domain
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