4,778 research outputs found

    Telecom Italia: Merging five companies into one

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    This article reports the results of an in-depth study of the merger integration process involving five operating companies in the Italian telecommunications industry. The article has important implications for research and practice. Specifically, it suggests that mergers and acquisitions results are related to the quality of the post-acquisition restructuring and integration process. The article also describes how the Italian Telecom merger was carried out and shows that integration and business redesign took place simultaneously. © 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved

    Management of Post-Harvest Anthracnose: Current Approaches and Future Perspectives

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    Anthracnose is a severe disease caused by Colletotrichum spp. on several crop species. Fungal infections can occur both in the field and at the post-harvest stage causing severe lesions on fruits and economic losses. Physical treatments and synthetic fungicides have traditionally been the preferred means to control anthracnose adverse effects; however, the urgent need to decrease the use of toxic chemicals led to the investigation of innovative and sustainable protection techniques. Evidence for the efficacy of biological agents and vegetal derivates has been reported; however, their introduction into actual crop protection strategies requires the solutions of several critical issues. Biotechnology-based approaches have also been explored, revealing the opportunity to develop innovative and safe methods for anthracnose management through genome editing and RNA interference technologies. Nevertheless, besides the number of advantages related to their use, e.g., the putative absence of adverse effects due to their high specificity, a number of aspects remain to be clarified to enable their introduction into Integrated Pest Management (IPM) protocols against Colletotrichum spp. disease

    Molecular diversity of anthracnose pathogen populations associated with UK strawberry production suggests multiple introductions of three different Colletotrichum species.

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    Fragaria Ă— ananassa (common name: strawberry) is a globally cultivated hybrid species belonging to Rosaceae family. Colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato (s.l.) is considered to be the second most economically important pathogen worldwide affecting strawberries. A collection of 148 Colletotrichum spp. isolates including 67 C. acutatum s.l. isolates associated with the phytosanitary history of UK strawberry production were used to characterize multi-locus genetic variation of this pathogen in the UK, relative to additional reference isolates that represent a worldwide sampling of the diversity of the fungus. The evidence indicates that three different species C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae are associated with strawberry production in the UK, which correspond to previously designated genetic groups A2, A4 and A3, respectively. Among these species, 12 distinct haplotypes were identified suggesting multiple introductions into the country. A subset of isolates was also used to compare aggressiveness in causing disease on strawberry plants and fruits. Isolates belonging to C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae representative of the UK anthracnose pathogen populations showed variation in their aggressiveness. Among the three species, C. nymphaeae and C. fioriniae appeared to be more aggressive compared to C. godetiae. This study highlights the genetic and pathogenic heterogeneity of the C. acutatum s.l. populations introduced into the UK linked to strawberry production

    Electrophysiology of glioma: a Rho GTPase-activating protein reduces tumor growth and spares neuron structure and function

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    Background. Glioblastomas are the most aggressive type of brain tumor. A successful treatment should aim at halting tumor growth and protecting neuronal cells to prevent functional deficits and cognitive deterioration. Here, we exploited a Rho GTPase-activating bacterial protein toxin, cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1), to interfere with glioma cell growth in vitro and vivo. We also investigated whether this toxin spares neuron structure and function in peritumoral areas. Methods. We performed a microarray transcriptomic and in-depth proteomic analysis to characterize the molecular changes triggered by CNF1 in glioma cells. We also examined tumor cell senescence and growth in vehicle-and CNF1-treated glioma-bearing mice. Electrophysiological and morphological techniques were used to investigate neuronal alterations in peritumoral cortical areas. Results. Administration of CNF1 triggered molecular and morphological hallmarks of senescence in mouse and human glioma cells in vitro. CNF1 treatment in vivo induced glioma cell senescence and potently reduced tumor volumes. In peritumoral areas of glioma-bearing mice, neurons showed a shrunken dendritic arbor and severe functional alterations such as increased spontaneous activity and reduced visual responsiveness. CNF1 treatment enhanced dendritic length and improved several physiological properties of pyramidal neurons, demonstrating functional preservation of the cortical network. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate that CNF1 reduces glioma volume while at the same time maintaining the physiological and structural properties of peritumoral neurons. These data indicate a promising strategy for the development of more effective antiglioma therapies

    How Water Interacts with the NOH Group: The Rotational Spectrum of the 1:1 N,N-diethylhydroxylamine·Water Complex

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    The rotational spectrum of the 1:1 N,N-diethylhydroxylamine-water complex has been investigated using pulsed jet Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in the 6.5–18.5 GHz frequency region. The most stable conformer has been detected as well as the (Formula presented.) C monosubstituted isotopologues in natural abundance and the (Formula presented.) O enriched water species, allowing to determine the nitrogen nuclear quadrupole coupling constants and the molecular structure in the vibrational ground state. The molecule has a (Formula presented.) symmetry and the water lies in the (Formula presented.) symmetry plane forming two hydrogen bonds with the NOH frame with length: (Formula presented.) = 1.974 Å and (Formula presented.) = 2.096 Å. From symmetry-adapted perturbation theory calculations coupled to atoms in molecule approach, the corresponding interaction energy values are estimated to be 24 and 13 kJ·mol (Formula presented.), respectively. The great strength of the intermolecular interaction involving the nitrogen atom is in agreement with the high reactivity of hydroxylamine compounds at the nitrogen site

    Study of MDT calibration constants using H8 testbeam data of year 2004

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    In year 2004 Atlas performed a long campaign of test beam data taking at the H8 Cern beam. Two sectors of the barrel and endcap regions of the Muon Spectrometer were exposed to the beam and large amount of data were collected in well defined and controlled operating conditions. This allowed a careful study on MDT drift properties. A better understanding of the calibration constants, of their definition and determination and of the criteria for their acceptance has been obtained. Systematic effects and time stability of the constants have also been studied

    Progression of motor deficits in glioma-bearing mice: impact of CNF1 therapy at symptomatic stages

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    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive type of brain tumor. In this context, animal models represent excellent tools for the early detection and longitudinal mapping of neuronal dysfunction, that are critical in the preclinical validation of new therapeutic strategies. In a mouse glioma model, we developed sensitive behavioral readouts that allow early recognizing and following neurological symptoms. We injected GL261 cells into the primary motor cortex of syngenic mice and we used a battery of behavioral tests to longitudinally monitor the dysfunction induced by tumor growth. Grip strength test revealed an early onset of functional deficit associated to the glioma growth, with a significant forelimb weakness appearing 9 days after tumor inoculation. A later deficit was observed in the rotarod and in the grid walk tasks. Using this model, we found reduced tumor growth and maintenance of behavioral functions following treatment with Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 (CNF1) at a symptomatic stage. Our data provide a detailed and precise examination of how tumor growth reverberates on the behavioral functions of glioma-bearing mice, providing normative data for the study of therapeutic strategies for glioma treatment. The reduced tumor volume and robust functional sparing observed in CNF1-treated, glioma-bearing mice strengthen the notion that CNF1 delivery is a promising strategy for glioma therapy

    Genome sequence of the biocontrol agent coniothyrium minitans conio (IMI 134523)

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    Coniothyrium minitans (synonym, Paraphaeosphaeria minitans) is a highly specific mycoparasite of the wide host range crop pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The capability of C. minitans to destroy the sclerotia of S. sclerotiorum has been well recognized and it is available as a widely used biocontrol product Contans WG. We present the draft genome sequence of C. minitans Conio (IMI 134523), which has previously been used in extensive studies that formed part of a registration package of the commercial product. This work provides a distinctive resource for further research into the molecular basis of mycoparasitism to harness the biocontrol potential of C. minitans

    Deciphering the infectious process of Colletotrichum lupini in lupin through transcriptomic and proteomic analysis

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    The fungal phytopathogen Colletotrichum lupini is responsible for lupin anthracnose, resulting in significant yield losses worldwide. The molecular mechanisms underlying this infectious process are yet to be elucidated. This study proposes to evaluate C. lupini gene expression and protein synthesis during lupin infection, using, respectively, an RNAseq-based transcriptomic approach and a mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach. Patterns of differentially-expressed genes in planta were evaluated from 24 to 84 hours post-inoculation, and compared to in vitro cultures. A total of 897 differentially-expressed genes were identified from C. lupini during interaction with white lupin, of which 520 genes were predicted to have a putative function, including carbohydrate active enzyme, effector, protease or transporter-encoding genes, commonly described as pathogenicity factors for other Colletotrichum species during plant infection, and 377 hypothetical proteins. Simultaneously, a total of 304 proteins produced during the interaction were identified and quantified by mass spectrometry. Taken together, the results highlight that the dynamics of symptoms, gene expression and protein synthesis shared similarities to those of hemibiotrophic pathogens. In addition, a few genes with unknown or poorly-described functions were found to be specifically associated with the early or late stages of infection, suggesting that they may be of importance for pathogenicity. This study, conducted for the first time on a species belonging to the Colletotrichum acutatum species complex, presents an opportunity to deepen functional analyses of the genes involved in the pathogenicity of Colletotrichum spp. during the onset of plant infection

    The AGILE real-time analysis pipelines in the multi-messenger era

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    In the multi-messenger era, space and ground-based observatories usually develop real-time analysis (RTA) pipelines to rapidly detect transient events and promptly share information with the scientific community to enable follow-up observations. These pipelines can also react to science alerts shared by other observatories through networks such as the Gamma-Ray Coordinates Network (GCN) and the Astronomer's Telegram (ATels). AGILE is a space mission launched in 2007 to study X-ray and gamma-ray phenomena. This contribution presents the technologies used to develop two types of AGILE pipelines using the RTApipe framework and an overview of the main scientific results. The first type performs automated analyses on new AGILE data to detect transient events and automatically sends AGILE notices to the GCN network. Since May 2019, this pipeline has sent more than 50 automated notices with a few minutes delay since data arrival. The second type of pipeline reacts to multi-messenger external alerts (neutrinos, gravitational waves, GRBs, and other transients) received through the GCN network and performs hundreds of analyses searching for counterparts in all AGILE instruments' data. The AGILE Team uses these pipelines to perform fast follow-up of science alerts reported by other facilities, which resulted in the publishing of several ATels and GCN circulars.Comment: 8 pages, 3 figures, Proceedings of the 37th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2021), Berlin, German
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