2,820 research outputs found

    Jet Production Cross Section Measurement In √ s = 5.02 Tev pp Collisions

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    The study of jets offers insights into the nature of the basic partons composing matter, and enables further studies into the nature of the universe. This analysis presents the double-differential production cross section of radius parameter R = 0.3 proton-proton jets in units of pseudorapidity and transverse momentum at √ s = 5.02 TeV, measured in the Compact Muon Solenoid detector at the Large Hadron Collider experiment located at CERN. Jets are reconstructed using Particle Flow and the anti-kT algorithms. The methodology of correcting the detector response through Jet Energy Corrections and Bayesian unfolding is described with a detailed explanation. The results from data recorded in CMS in 2015 are shown and compared with leading-order theory-based simulated PYTHIA8 Monte Carlo events

    Task-related functional connectivity in autism spectrum conditions: an EEG study using wavelet transform coherence.

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    BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) are a set of pervasive neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by a wide range of lifelong signs and symptoms. Recent explanatory models of autism propose abnormal neural connectivity and are supported by studies showing decreased interhemispheric coherence in individuals with ASC. The first aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of reduced interhemispheric coherence in ASC, and secondly to investigate specific effects of task performance on interhemispheric coherence in ASC. METHODS: We analyzed electroencephalography (EEG) data from 15 participants with ASC and 15 typical controls, using Wavelet Transform Coherence (WTC) to calculate interhemispheric coherence during face and chair matching tasks, for EEG frequencies from 5 to 40 Hz and during the first 400 ms post-stimulus onset. RESULTS: Results demonstrate a reduction of interhemispheric coherence in the ASC group, relative to the control group, in both tasks and for all electrode pairs studied. For both tasks, group differences were generally observed after around 150 ms and at frequencies lower than 13 Hz. Regarding within-group task comparisons, while the control group presented differences in interhemispheric coherence between faces and chairs tasks at various electrode pairs (FT7-FT8, TP7-TP8, P7-P8), such differences were only seen for one electrode pair in the ASC group (T7-T8). No significant differences in EEG power spectra were observed between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Interhemispheric coherence is reduced in people with ASC, in a time and frequency specific manner, during visual perception and categorization of both social and inanimate stimuli and this reduction in coherence is widely dispersed across the brain.Results of within-group task comparisons may reflect an impairment in task differentiation in people with ASC relative to typically developing individuals.Overall, the results of this research support the value of WTC in examining the time-frequency microstructure of task-related interhemispheric EEG coherence in people with ASC.RIGHTS : This article is licensed under the BioMed Central licence at http://www.biomedcentral.com/about/license which is similar to the 'Creative Commons Attribution Licence'. In brief you may : copy, distribute, and display the work; make derivative works; or make commercial use of the work - under the following conditions: the original author must be given credit; for any reuse or distribution, it must be made clear to others what the license terms of this work are

    Introspective physicalism as an approach to the science of consciousness

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    Most ‘theories of consciousness’ are based on vague speculations about the properties of conscious experience. We aim to provide a more solid basis for a science of consciousness. We argue that a theory of consciousness should provide an account of the very processes that allow us to acquire and use information about our own mental states – the processes underlying introspection. This can be achieved through the construction of information processing models that can account for ‘Type-C’ processes. Type-C processes can be specified experimentally by identifying paradigms in which awareness of the stimulus is necessary for an intentional action. The Shallice (1988b) framework is put forward as providing an initial account of Type-C processes, which can relate perceptual consciousness to consciously performed actions. Further, we suggest that this framework may be refined through the investigation of the functions of prefrontal cortex. The formulation of our approach requires us to consider fundamental conceptual and methodological issues associated with consciousness. The most significant of these issues concerns the scientific use of introspective evidence. We outline and justify a conservative methodological approach to the use of introspective evidence, with attention to the difficulties historically associated with its use in psychology

    The neural correlates of inner speech defined by voxel-based lesion–symptom mapping

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    The neural correlates of inner speech have been investigated previously using functional imaging. However, methodological and other limitations have so far precluded a clear description of the neural anatomy of inner speech and its relation to overt speech. Specifically, studies that examine only inner speech often fail to control for subjects’ behaviour in the scanner and therefore cannot determine the relation between inner and overt speech. Functional imaging studies comparing inner and overt speech have not produced replicable results and some have similar methodological caveats as studies looking only at inner speech. Lesion analysis can avoid the methodological pitfalls associated with using inner and overt speech in functional imaging studies, while at the same time providing important data about the neural correlates essential for the specific function. Despite its advantages, a study of the neural correlates of inner speech using lesion analysis has not been carried out before. In this study, 17 patients with chronic post-stroke aphasia performed inner speech tasks (rhyme and homophone judgements), and overt speech tasks (reading aloud). The relationship between brain structure and language ability was studied using voxel-based lesion–symptom mapping. This showed that inner speech abilities were affected by lesions to the left pars opercularis in the inferior frontal gyrus and to the white matter adjacent to the left supramarginal gyrus, over and above overt speech production and working memory. These results suggest that inner speech cannot be assumed to be simply overt speech without a motor component. It also suggests that the use of overt speech to understand inner speech and vice versa might result in misleading conclusions, both in imaging studies and clinical practice

    Pharmaceutical Metabolism in Fish: Using a 3-D Hepatic In Vitro Model to Assess Clearance

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    At high internal doses, pharmaceuticals have the potential for inducing biological/pharmacological effects in fish. One particular concern for the environment is their potential to bioaccumulate and reach pharmacological levels; the study of these implications for environmental risk assessment has therefore gained increasing attention. To avoid unnecessary testing on animals, in vitro methods for assessment of xenobiotic metabolism could aid in the ecotoxicological evaluation. Here we report the use of a 3-D in vitro liver organoid culture system (spheroids) derived from rainbow trout to measure the metabolism of seven pharmaceuticals using a substrate depletion assay. Of the pharmaceuticals tested, propranolol, diclofenac and phenylbutazone were metabolised by trout liver spheroids; atenolol, metoprolol, diazepam and carbamazepine were not. Substrate depletion kinetics data was used to estimate intrinsic hepatic clearance by this spheroid model, which was similar for diclofenac and approximately 5 fold higher for propranolol when compared to trout liver microsomal fraction (S9) data. These results suggest that liver spheroids could be used as a relevant and metabolically competent in vitro model with which to measure the biotransformation of pharmaceuticals in fish; and propranolol acts as a reproducible positive control

    Extragalactic Radio Continuum Surveys and the Transformation of Radio Astronomy

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    Next-generation radio surveys are about to transform radio astronomy by discovering and studying tens of millions of previously unknown radio sources. These surveys will provide new insights to understand the evolution of galaxies, measuring the evolution of the cosmic star formation rate, and rivalling traditional techniques in the measurement of fundamental cosmological parameters. By observing a new volume of observational parameter space, they are also likely to discover unexpected new phenomena. This review traces the evolution of extragalactic radio continuum surveys from the earliest days of radio astronomy to the present, and identifies the challenges that must be overcome to achieve this transformational change.Comment: To be published in Nature Astronomy 18 Sept 201

    Detection and characterization of proteinase K-sensitive disease-related prion protein with thermolysin

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    Disease-related PrPSc [pathogenic PrP (prion protein)] is classically distinguished from its normal cellular precursor, PrPC(cellular PrP) by its detergent insolubility and partial resistance to proteolysis. Although molecular diagnosis of prion disease has historically relied upon detection of protease-resistant fragments of PrPSc using PK (proteinase K), it is now apparent that a substantial fraction of disease-related PrP is destroyed by this protease. Recently, thermolysin has been identified as a complementary tool to PK, permitting isolation of PrPSc in its full-length form. In the present study, we show that thermolysin can degrade PrPC while preserving both PK-sensitive and PK-resistant isoforms of disease-related PrP in both rodent and human prion strains. For mouse RML (Rocky Mountain Laboratory) prions, the majority of PK-sensitive disease-related PrP isoforms do not appear to contribute significantly to infectivity. In vCJD (variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease), the human counterpart of BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy), up to 90% of total PrP present in the brain resists degradation with thermolysin, whereas only ∼15% of this material resists digestion by PK. Detection of PK-sensitive isoforms of disease-related PrP using thermolysin should be useful for improving diagnostic sensitivity in human prion diseases