10,116 research outputs found

    Structure and dynamics of deep-seated slope failures in the Magura Flysch Nappe, outer Western Carpathians (Czech Republic)

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    International audienceDeep-seated mass movements currently comprise one of the main morphogenetic processes in the Flysch Belt of the Western Carpathians of Central Europe. These mass movements result in a large spectrum of slope failures, depending on the type of movement and the nature of the bedrock. This paper presents the results of a detailed survey and reconstruction of three distinct deep-seated slope failures in the Raca Unit of the Magura Nappe, Flysch Belt of the Western Carpathians in the Czech Republic. An interdisciplinary approach has enabled a global view of the dynamics and development of these deep-seated slope failures. The three cases considered here have revealed a complex, poly-phase development of slope failure. They are deep-seated ones with depths to the failure surface ranging from 50 to 110m. They differ in mechanism of movement, failure structure, current activity, and total displacement. The main factors influencing their development have been flysch-bedrock structure, lithology, faulting by bedrock separation (which enabled further weakening through deep weathering), geomorphic setting, swelling of smectite-rich clays, and finally heavy rainfall. All of the slope failures considered here seem to have originated during humid phases of the Holocene or during the Late Glacial


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    BOLLOCKS!! Designing pervasive games that play with the social rules of built environments

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    We propose that pervasive games designed with mechanics that are specifically in opposition with, or disruptive of, social rules of the environment in which they are played, have unique potential to provide interesting, provocative experiences for players. We explore this concept through the design and evaluation of an experimental game prototype, Shhh!, inspired by the juvenile game Bollocks, and implemented on Android mobile devices, which challenges players to make loud noises in libraries. Six participants played the game before engaging in semi-structured interviews, explored through inductive thematic analysis. Results suggest that the game provoked in players a heightened awareness of social rules, as well as a complex social dilemma of whether or not to act. We conclude by presenting a model for designing games that play with the social, as well as physical, rules of the environments in which they are set

    Brain and behavioral correlates of action semantic deficits in autism.

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    Action-perception circuits containing neurons in the motor system have been proposed as the building blocks of higher cognition; accordingly, motor dysfunction should entail cognitive deficits. Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are marked by motor impairments but the implications of such motor dysfunction for higher cognition remain unclear. We here used word reading and semantic judgment tasks to investigate action-related motor cognition and its corresponding fMRI brain activation in high-functioning adults with ASC. These participants exhibited hypoactivity of motor cortex in language processing relative to typically developing controls. Crucially, we also found a deficit in semantic processing of action-related words, which, intriguingly, significantly correlated with this underactivation of motor cortex to these items. Furthermore, the word-induced hypoactivity in the motor system also predicted the severity of ASC as expressed by the number of autistic symptoms measured by the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (Baron-Cohen etal., 2001). These significant correlations between word-induced activation of the motor system and a newly discovered semantic deficit in a condition known to be characterized by motor impairments, along with the correlation of such activation with general autistic traits, confirm critical predictions of causal theories linking cognitive and semantic deficits in ASC, in part, to dysfunctional action-perception circuits and resultant reduction of motor system activation

    The Olfactory Threshold of Rotundone in Brandy is Ten-fold Higher than in Wine and does not Increase with the Complexity of the Matrix

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    Rotundone is the only known aroma compound imparting a peppery aroma to wine. Its presence hasrecently been documented in spirits, notably those aged in oak barrels. However, the sensory contributionof rotundone in such alcoholic beverages remains hard to predict, given their high ethanol level. The aimof this study was to estimate olfactory thresholds for rotundone in brandy using three different matrices.Rotundone concentrations in the unspiked samples were 50 ng/L for wine distillate and 135 ng/L for brandy,demonstrating for the first time the presence of rotundone in such spirits and a possible endogenous origin.The olfactory detection threshold was estimated at 103 ng/L in 40% (v/v) ethanol solution, while differencethresholds were 171 ng/L and 189 ng/L in fresh wine distillate and young French brandy, respectively, bothstandardised at 40% (v/v). These thresholds were 10-fold higher than in wines and did not significantlydiffer according to the complexity of the matrix. Our results, which are still preliminary and would deserveto be validated with a larger number of samples and using a higher number of panellists, open new fieldsof investigation for a deeper exploration of the concentration range of rotundone in brandies, particularlythose that underwent a longer ageing period in barrels

    Aggressive surgical management in localized pulmonary mycotic and nonmycotic infections for neutropenic patients with acute leukemia: Report of eighteen cases

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    AbstractObjective: To prevent hemoptysis and relapse during subsequent chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in patients with localized forms of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, we adopted an aggressive surgical approach. Methods: From 1988 to 1996, 18 patients with hematologic diseases were referred with the diagnosis of localized invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The diagnosis was based on clinical features, failure to respond to antibiotic therapy, an air crescent sign suggestive of aspergillosis on the computed tomographic scan (39%), and retrieval of fungi by bronchoalveolar lavage (44%). Results: The following procedures were done: one pneumonectomy, four bilobectomies, seven lobectomies, six wedge resections, and one lobectomy with wedge resection (one patient had two procedures). No perioperative deaths or complications occurred. The histologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in 12 patients. The six other diagnoses were as follows: one case of classic aspergilloma, one case of pneumonia, and four cases of pulmonary abscess. According to univariate analysis, thoracic pain was less common in the group with noninvasive pulmonary aspergillosis (1/6) than in the group with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (8/12) (p < 0.05). Sixteen patients required subsequent hematologic treatments. Sixty-six percent of the patients are alive with a mean follow-up of 29.1 ± 27.8 months (range 2 to 103 months), with no statistically significant difference between the invasive and the noninvasive pulmonary aspergillosis groups. Five patients died of a recurrence of their malignant disease at a mean of 17.2 ± 12.5 months (range 2 to 30 months), and one had a cerebral recurrence of Aspergillus infection during a bone marrow transplantation 3 months later. Conclusion: Aggressive surgical management radically improves the prognosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, even if the surgical indications include some nonmycotic infections because of the difficulty in establishing the clinical diagnosis. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1997;115:63-9

    The association between socio-demographic characteristics and adherence to breast and colorectal cancer screening: Analysis of large sub populations

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Populations having lower socioeconomic status, as well as ethnic minorities, have demonstrated lower utilization of preventive screening, including tests for early detection of breast and colorectal cancer.</p> <p>The objective</p> <p>To explore socio-demographic disparities in adherence to screening recommendations for early detection of cancer.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>The study was conducted by Maccabi Healthcare Services, an Israeli HMO (health plan) providing healthcare services to 1.9 million members. Utilization of breast cancer (BC) and colorectal cancer (CC) screening were analyzed by socio-economic ranks (SERs), ethnicity (Arab vs non-Arab), immigration status and ownership of voluntarily supplemental health insurance (VSHI).</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Data on 157,928 and 303,330 adults, eligible for BC and CC screening, respectively, were analyzed. Those having lower SER, Arabs, immigrants from Former Soviet Union countries and non-owners of VSHI performed fewer cancer screening examinations compared with those having higher SER, non-Arabs, veterans and owners of VSHI (p < 0.001). Logistic regression model for BC Screening revealed a positive association with age and ownership of VSHI and a negative association with being an Arab and having a lower SER. The model for CC screening revealed a positive association with age and ownership of VSHI and a negative association with being an Arab, having a lower SER and being an immigrant. The model estimated for BC and CC screening among females revealed a positive association with age and ownership of VSHI and a negative association with being an Arab, having a lower SER and being an immigrant.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Patients from low socio-economic backgrounds, Arabs, immigrants and those who do not own supplemental insurance do fewer tests for early detection of cancer. These sub-populations should be considered priority populations for targeted intervention programs and improved resource allocation.</p

    Thermodynamic aspects of materials' hardness: prediction of novel superhard high-pressure phases

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    In the present work we have proposed the method that allows one to easily estimate hardness and bulk modulus of known or hypothetical solid phases from the data on Gibbs energy of atomization of the elements and corresponding covalent radii. It has been shown that hardness and bulk moduli of compounds strongly correlate with their thermodynamic and structural properties. The proposed method may be used for a large number of compounds with various types of chemical bonding and structures; moreover, the temperature dependence of hardness may be calculated, that has been performed for diamond and cubic boron nitride. The correctness of this approach has been shown for the recently synthesized superhard diamond-like BC5. It has been predicted that the hypothetical forms of B2O3, diamond-like boron, BCx and COx, which could be synthesized at high pressures and temperatures, should have extreme hardness