214 research outputs found

    A broad spectrum, one-step reverse-transcription PCR amplification of the neuraminidase gene from multiple subtypes of influenza A virus

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    Background: The emergence of high pathogenicity strains of Influenza A virus in a variety of human and animal hosts, with wide geographic distribution, has highlighted the importance of rapid identification and subtyping of the virus for outbreak management and treatment. Type A virus can be classified into subtypes according to the viral envelope glycoproteins, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. Here we review the existing specificity and amplification of published primers to subtype neuraminidase genes and describe a new broad spectrum primer pair that can detect all 9 neuraminidase subtypes

    Accuracy and Longevity of an Implantable Continuous Glucose Sensor in the PRECISE Study: A 180-Day, Prospective, Multicenter, Pivotal Trial

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    It is known that continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems can lower mean glucose compared with episodic self-monitoring of blood glucose. Implantable CGM systems may provide additional benefits. We studied the Eversense (Senseonics Inc.) implantable CGM sensor in 71 participants aged 18 years and older with type 1 and type 2 diabetes in a 180-day multinational, multicenter pivotal trial. Participants used the CGM system at home and in the clinic. CGM accuracy was assessed during eight in-clinic visits with the mean absolute relative difference (MARD) for venous reference glucose values >4.2 mmol/L as the primary end point. Secondary end points included Clarke Error Grid Analysis and alarm performance. The primary safety outcome was device-related serious adverse events. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02154126. The MARD value against reference glucose values >4.2 mmol/L was 11.1% (95% CI 10.5, 11.7). Clarke Error Grid Analysis showed 99.2% of samples in the clinically acceptable error zones A and B. Eighty-one percent of hypoglycemic events were detected by the CGM system within 30 min. No device-related serious adverse events occurred during the study. Our results indicate the safety and accuracy of this new type of implantable CGM system and support it as an alternative for transcutaneous CG

    C2M: Configurable Chemical Middleware

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    One of the vexing problems that besets concurrent use of multiple, heterogeneous resources is format multiplicity. C2M aims to equip scientists with a wrapper generator on their desktop. The wrapper generator can build wrappers, or converters that can convert data from or into different formats, from a high-level description of the formats. The language in which such a high-level description is expressed is easy enough for scientists to be able to write format descriptions at minimal cost. In C2M, wrappers and documentation for human reading are automatically obtained from the same user-supplied specifications. Initial experiments demonstrate that the idea can, indeed, lead to the advent of usergoverned wrapper generators. Future research will consolidate the code and extend the approach to a realistic variety of formats

    In search of the authentic nation: landscape and national identity in Canada and Switzerland

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    While the study of nationalism and national identity has flourished in the last decade, little attention has been devoted to the conditions under which natural environments acquire significance in definitions of nationhood. This article examines the identity-forming role of landscape depictions in two polyethnic nation-states: Canada and Switzerland. Two types of geographical national identity are identified. The first – what we call the ‘nationalisation of nature’– portrays zarticular landscapes as expressions of national authenticity. The second pattern – what we refer to as the ‘naturalisation of the nation’– rests upon a notion of geographical determinism that depicts specific landscapes as forces capable of determining national identity. The authors offer two reasons why the second pattern came to prevail in the cases under consideration: (1) the affinity between wild landscape and the Romantic ideal of pure, rugged nature, and (2) a divergence between the nationalist ideal of ethnic homogeneity and the polyethnic composition of the two societies under consideration

    Acceptability of Implantable Continuous Glucose Monitoring Sensor

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    Real-time continuous glucose monitoring is associated with significant benefits for diabetes management. Implantable sensors could overcome some challenges reportedly associated with device visibility, psychosocial functioning and sensor durability. A psychosocial assessment was conducted to determine acceptability and impact of an implantable continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensor as part of the PRECISE trial. Questionnaires were administered to participants comprising the Diabetes Distress Scale, the CGM impact scale, and bespoke device satisfaction. Fifty-one participants across the United Kingdom (n = 10) and Germany (n = 41) completed the questionnaires. Of these, 90% had T1D, 50% followed an insulin pump therapy regimen, and 45% of the participants were previous CGM users. CGM Impact Scale results show 86% (n = 44) of participants reported feeling better (14% neutral) about their diabetes control with 90% CGM naïve participants and 81% previous CGM users reporting increased confidence about their diabetes management. Furthermore, 73% (n = 37) felt more safe (27% neutral) while sleeping and 78% (n = 39) more confident (22% neutral) about avoiding serious hypoglycemia. Responses correspond with an average improvement in HbA1c from 7.51 to 7.05 ( P < .0001) over the 90 days use of the CGM. Overall, the system was rated highly on ease of use, convenience and comfort. 84% would choose to be inserted again with 93% of CGM naïve participants (86% previous CGM users) reporting minimized burden of diabetes. Implantable CGM devices are acceptable to users and are evaluated favorably. The considerable majority of participants (93% of first time users and 77% previous CGM users) would like to continue using the system to help manage their diabetes more effectivel

    Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early.

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    open5noParental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents’ addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18–24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and intervention programs are needed for children of drug-misusing parents, addressing EF and adopting a trauma-focused approach.openParolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, M.; Cristofalo, P.Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, M.; Cristofalo, P

    Paleocene methane seep and wood-fall marine environments from Spitsbergen, Svalbard

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    A recently discovered Paleocene seep locality from Fossildalen on Spitsbergen, Svalbard, is described. This is one of a very few seep communities of the latest Cretaceous–earliest Palaeogene age, and the best preserved Paleocene seep community known so far. The seep carbonates and associated fossils have been first identified in museum collections, and subsequently sampled in the field. The carbonates are exclusively ex-situ and come from the offshore siltstones of the Basilika Formation. Isotopically light composition (δ13C values approaching -50‰ V-PDB), and characteristic petrographic textures of the carbonates combined with the isotopically light archaeal lipid are consistent with the formation at fossil hydrocarbon seep. The invertebrate fauna associated with the carbonates is of moderate diversity (16 species) and has a shallow water affinity. It contains a species of the thyasirid genus Conchocele, common in other seeps of that age. The finding sheds new light onto the history of seepage on Svalbard, and onto the evolution and ecology of seep faunas during the latest Cretaceous–earliest Palaeogene time interval

    Measurement of coronary calcium scores or exercise testing as initial screening tool in asymptomatic subjects with ST-T changes on the resting ECG: an evaluation study

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    Background: Asymptomatic subjects at intermediate coronary risk may need diagnostic testing for risk stratification. Both measurement of coronary calcium scores and exercise testing are well established tests for this purpose. However, it is not clear which test should be preferred as initial diagnostic test. We evaluated the prevalence of documented coronary artery disease (CAD) according to calcium scores and exercise test results. Methods: Asymptomatic subjects with ST-T changes on a rest ECG were selected from the population based PREVEND cohort study and underwent measurement of calcium scores by electron beam tomography and exercise testing. With calcium scores ≥10 or a positive exercise test, myocardial perfusion imaging (MPS) or coronary angiography (CAG) was recommended. The primary endpoint was documented obstructive CAD (≥50% stenosis). Results: Of 153 subjects included, 149 subjects completed the study protocol. Calcium scores ≥400, 100-399, 10-99 and <10 were found in 16, 29, 18 and 86 subjects and the primary endpoint was present in 11 (69%), 12 (41%), 0 (0%) and 1 (1%) subjects, respectively. A positive, nondiagnostic and negative exercise test was present in 33, 27 and 89 subjects and the primary endpoint was present in 13 (39%), 5 (19%) and 6 (7%) subjects, respectively. Receiver operator characteristics analysis showed that the area under the curve, as measure of diagnostic yield, of 0.91 (95% CI 0.84-0.97) for calcium scores was superior to 0.74 (95% CI 0.64-0.83) for exercise testing (p = 0.004). Conclusion: Measurement of coronary calciu
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