3,298 research outputs found

    Identification of Absorption Features in an Extrasolar Planet Atmosphere

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    Water absorption is identified in the atmosphere of HD209458b by comparing models for the planet's transmitted spectrum to recent, multi-wavelength, eclipse-depth measurements (from 0.3 to 1 microns) published by Knutson et al. (2007). A cloud-free model which includes solar abundances, rainout of condensates, and photoionization of sodium and potassium is in good agreement with the entire set of eclipse-depth measurements from the ultraviolet to near-infrared. Constraints are placed on condensate removal by gravitational settling, the bulk metallicity, and the redistribution of absorbed stellar flux. Comparisons are also made to the Charbonneau et al. (2002) sodium measurements.Comment: Accepted for publication in ApJL., in emulate ApJ forma

    On the Presence of Water and Global Circulation in the Transiting Planet HD 189733b

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    Detailed models are compared to recent infrared observations of the nearby extrasolar planet, HD 189733b. It is demonstrated that atmospheric water is present and that the planet's day side has a non-isothermal structure down to gas pressures of ~ 0.1 bars. Furthermore, model spectra with different amounts of CO are compared to the observations and an atmosphere absent of CO is excluded at roughly 2-sigma. Constraining the CO concentration beyond that is unfortunately not possible with the current Spitzer photometry. However, radically enhanced (or depleted) metal abundances are unlikely and the basic composition of this planet is probably similar to that of its host star. When combined with Spitzer observations, a recent ground-based upper limit for the K-band day side flux allows one to estimate the day-to-night energy redistribution efficiency to be ~ 43%.Comment: accepted (2008 Feb. 5), ApJ Letter

    Two Classes of Hot Jupiters

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    We identify two classes of transiting planet, based on their equilibrium temperatures and Safronov numbers. We examine various possible explanations for the dichotomy. It may reflect the influence of planet or planetesimal scattering in determining when planetary migration stops. Another possibility is that some planets lose more mass to evaporation than others. If this evaporation process preferentially removes Helium from the planet, the consequent reduction in the mean molecular weight may explain why some planets have anomalously large radii.Comment: 35 pages, 16 figures in Preprint format. Submitted to Ap

    The PHOENIX Exoplanet Retrieval Algorithm and Using Hβˆ’^{-} Opacity as a Probe in Ultra-hot Jupiters

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    Atmospheric retrievals are now a standard tool to analyze observations of exoplanet atmospheres. This data-driven approach quantitatively compares atmospheric models to observations in order to estimate atmospheric properties and their uncertainties. In this paper, we introduce a new retrieval package, the PHOENIX Exoplanet Retrieval Analysis (PETRA). PETRA places the PHOENIX atmosphere model in a retrieval framework, allowing us to combine the strengths of a well-tested and widely-used atmosphere model with the advantages of retrieval algorithms. We validate PETRA by retrieving on simulated data for which the true atmospheric state is known. We also show that PETRA can successfully reproduce results from previously published retrievals of WASP-43b and HD 209458b. For the WASP-43b results, we show the effect that different line lists and line profile treatments have on the retrieved atmospheric properties. Lastly, we describe a novel technique for retrieving the temperature structure and eβˆ’e^{-} density in ultra-hot Jupiters using Hβˆ’^{-} opacity, allowing us to probe atmospheres devoid of most molecular features with JWST.Comment: 17 pages, 18 figures. Accepted for publication in A

    The Influence of Host Star Spectral Type on Ultra-Hot Jupiter Atmospheres

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    Ultra-hot Jupiters are the most highly irradiated gas giant planets, with equilibrium temperatures from 2000 to over 4000 K. Ultra-hot Jupiters are amenable to characterization due to their high temperatures, inflated radii, and short periods, but their atmospheres are atypical for planets in that the photosphere possesses large concentrations of atoms and ions relative to molecules. Here we evaluate how the atmospheres of these planets respond to irradiation by stars of different spectral type. We find that ultra-hot Jupiters exhibit temperature inversions that are sensitive to the spectral type of the host star. The slope and temperature range across the inversion both increase as the host star effective temperature increases due to enhanced absorption at short wavelengths and low pressures. The steep temperature inversions in ultra-hot Jupiters around hot stars result in increased thermal dissociation and ionization compared to similar planets around cooler stars. The resulting increase in Hβˆ’^{-} opacity leads to a transit spectrum that has muted absorption features. The emission spectrum, however, exhibits a large contrast in brightness temperature, a signature that will be detectable with both secondary eclipse observations and high-dispersion spectroscopy. We also find that the departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium in the stellar atmosphere can affect the degree of heating caused by atomic metals in the planet's upper atmosphere. Additionally, we further quantify the significance of heating by different opacity sources in ultra-hot Jupiter atmospheres.Comment: 13 pages, 9 figures, 2 tables. Accepted for publication in Ap

    Large negative magnetoresistance in a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy : Ni_{2+x}Mn_{1-x}Ga

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    5% negative magnetoresistance (MR) at room temperature has been observed in bulk Ni_{2+x}Mn_{1-x}Ga. This indicates the possibility of using Ni_{2+x}Mn_{1-x}Ga as magnetic sensors. We have measured MR in the ferromagnetic state for different compositions (x=0-0.2) in the austenitic, pre-martensitic and martensitic phases. MR is found to increase with x. While MR for x=0 varies almost linearly in the austenitic and pre-martensitic phases, in the martensitic phase it shows a cusp-like shape. This has been explained by the changes in twin and domain structures in the martensitic phase. In the austenitic phase, which does not have twin structure, MR agrees with theory based on s-d scattering model.Comment: 3 pages, 3 figures, Appl. Phys. Lett 86, 202508 (2005

    Optimal operating conditions and characteristics of acetone/CaF_2 detector for inverse photoemission spectroscopy

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    Performance and characteristics of a band-pass photon detector using acetone gas and CaF_2 window (acetone/CaF_2) have been studied and compared with an ethanol/MgF_2 detector. The optimal operating conditions are found to be 4 mbar acetone pressure and 745+/-20 V anode voltage. The count rate obtained by us is about a factor of 3 higher than what has been reported earlier for the acetone detector. Unlike other gas filled detectors, this detector works in the proportional region with very small dead time (4 micro sec). A detector band-pass of 0.48+/-0.01 eV FWHM is obtained.Comment: Review of Scientific Instruments 76, 066102 (2005

    Evolution of photoemission spectral functions in doped transition metal oxides

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    We discuss the experimental photoemission and inverse photoemission of early transition metal oxides, in the light of the dynamical mean field theory of correlated electrons which becomes exact in the limit of infinite dimensions. We argue that a comprehensive description of the experimental data requires spatial inhomogeneities and present a calculation of the evolution of the spectral function in an inhomogenous system with various degrees of inhomogeneity. We also point out that comparaison of experimental results and large d calculations require that the degree of correlation and disorder is larger in the surface than in the bulk

    Spectral functions in doped transition metal oxides

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    We present experimental photoemission and inverse photoemission spectra of SrTiO3βˆ’Ξ΄_{3- \delta} representing electron doped d0d^0 systems. Photoemission spectra in presence of electron doping exhibit prominent features arising from electron correlation effects, while the inverse photoemssion spectra are dominated by spectral features explainable within single-particle approaches. We show that such a spectral evolution in chemically doped correlated systems is not compatible with expectations based on Hubbard or any other similar model. We present a new theoretical approach taking into account the inhomogeneity of the `real' system which gives qualitatively different results compared to standard `homogeneous' models and is in quantitative agreement with experiments.Comment: 10 pages; 1 tex file+4 postscript files (to appear in Europhysics Letters
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