1,468 research outputs found

    The role of dexmedetomidine in neurosurgery

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    Dexmedetomidine can be used for sedation and analgesia and has been approved for this use by the European Medicines Agency since 2017. It causes an arousable state of sedation, which is beneficial during neurosurgical procedures that require the patient to cooperate with neurological tests (i.e. tumor surgery or implantation of deep brain stimulators). During procedures where monitoring of somatosensory evoked potentials and/or motor evoked potentials is required, dexmedetomidine can be used as an adjunct to general anesthesia with GABAergic drugs to decrease the dose of the latter when these drugs impair the monitoring signals. The use of dexmedetomidine has also been associated with neuroprotective effects and a decreased incidence of delirium, but studies confirming these effects in the peri-operative (neuro-) surgical setting are lacking. Although dexmedetomidine does not cause respiratory depression, its hemodynamic effects are complex and careful patient selection, choice of dose, and monitoring must be performed. (c) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

    Quasiparticle relaxation in optically excited high-Q superconducting resonators

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    The quasiparticle relaxation time in superconducting films has been measured as a function of temperature using the response of the complex conductivity to photon flux. For tantalum and aluminium, chosen for their difference in electron-phonon coupling strength, we find that at high temperatures the relaxation time increases with decreasing temperature, as expected for electron-phonon interaction. At low temperatures we find in both superconducting materials a saturation of the relaxation time, suggesting the presence of a second relaxation channel not due to electron-phonon interaction.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figure

    Enhancement of quasiparticle recombination in Ta and Al superconductors by implantation of magnetic and nonmagnetic atoms

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    The quasiparticle recombination time in superconducting films, consisting of the standard electron-phonon interaction and a yet to be identified low temperature process, is studied for different densities of magnetic and nonmagnetic atoms. For both Ta and Al, implanted with Mn, Ta and Al, we observe an increase of the recombination rate. We conclude that the enhancement of recombination is not due to the magnetic moment, but arises from an enhancement of disorder.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

    Reduced frequency noise in superconducting resonators

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    We report a reduction of the frequency noise in coplanar waveguide superconducting resonators. The reduction of 7 dB is achieved by removing the exposed dielectric substrate surface from the region with high electric fields and by using NbTiN. In a model-analysis the surface of NbTiN is found to be a negligible source of noise, experimentally supported by a comparison with NbTiN on SiOx resonators. The reduction is additive to decreasing the noise by widening the resonators.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

    Compressed sensing quantum process tomography for superconducting quantum gates

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    We apply the method of compressed sensing (CS) quantum process tomography (QPT) to characterize quantum gates based on superconducting Xmon and phase qubits. Using experimental data for a two-qubit controlled-Z gate, we obtain an estimate for the process matrix χ\chi with reasonably high fidelity compared to full QPT, but using a significantly reduced set of initial states and measurement configurations. We show that the CS method still works when the amount of used data is so small that the standard QPT would have an underdetermined system of equations. We also apply the CS method to the analysis of the three-qubit Toffoli gate with numerically added noise, and similarly show that the method works well for a substantially reduced set of data. For the CS calculations we use two different bases in which the process matrix χ\chi is approximately sparse, and show that the resulting estimates of the process matrices match each ther with reasonably high fidelity. For both two-qubit and three-qubit gates, we characterize the quantum process by not only its process matrix and fidelity, but also by the corresponding standard deviation, defined via variation of the state fidelity for different initial states.Comment: 16 pages, 11 figure

    Is there a cybercriminal personality? Comparing cyber offenders and offline offenders on HEXACO personality domains and their underlying facets

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    Cyberspace creates opportunities for new forms of crime that may be related to specific personality characteristics of offenders. Few studies have investigated the personality characteristics of cyber offenders. We address this gap by comparing a judicial sample of 261 suspects of cyber-dependent crime, 260 suspects of offline crime, and a community sample of 512 participants on the HEXACO personality domains and their underlying facets. This provides a nuanced picture of the cybercriminal personality and could provide information for prevention and intervention programs. Results indicate that, compared to suspects of offline crime, suspected cyber offenders score significantly lower on extraversion and significantly higher on conscientiousness and openness to experience. Cyber offenders are more similar to community participants on these main personality domains. With regard to the underlying facets, suspected cyber offenders appear to be unique in their relatively high level of diligence. They are more similar to suspected offline offenders on traits that may help them perform criminal activities, such as lower levels of modesty, fearfulness, and flexibility. They are more similar to the community sample, however, on traits that may strengthen their ability or tendency to commit cyber offenses, such as higher levels of patience, perfectionism, and prudence

    Hypotension during propofol sedation for colonoscopy:an exploratory analysis

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    BACKGROUND: Intraoperative and postoperative hypotension occur commonly and are associated with organ injury and poor outcomes. Changes in arterial blood pressure (BP) during procedural sedation are not well described. METHODS: Individual patient data from five trials of propofol sedation for colonoscopy and a clinical database were pooled and explored with logistic and linear regression. A literature search and focused meta-analysis compared the incidence of hypotension with propofol and alternative forms of procedural sedation. Hypotensive episodes were characterised by the original authors' definitions (typically systolic BP 5 min, and in 89 (23%) the episodes exceeded 10 min. Meta-analysis of 18 RCTs identified an increased risk ratio for the development of hypotension in procedures where propofol was used compared with the use of etomidate (two studies; n=260; risk ratio [RR] 2.0 [95% confidence interval: 1.37–2.92]; P=0.0003), remimazolam (one study; n=384; RR 2.15 [1.61–2.87]; P=0.0001), midazolam (14 studies; n=2218; RR 1.46 [1.18–1.79]; P=0.0004), or all benzodiazepines (15 studies; n=2602; 1.67 [1.41–1.98]; P<0.00001). Hypotension was less likely with propofol than with dexmedetomidine (one study; n=60; RR 0.24 [0.09–0.62]; P=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Hypotension is common during propofol sedation for colonoscopy and of a magnitude and duration associated with harm in surgical patients
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