1,130 research outputs found

    U(2) Flavor Physics without U(2) Symmetry

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    We present a model of fermion masses based on a minimal, non-Abelian discrete symmetry that reproduces the Yukawa matrices usually associated with U(2) theories of flavor. Mass and mixing angle relations that follow from the simple form of the quark and charged lepton Yukawa textures are therefore common to both theories. We show that the differing representation structure of our horizontal symmetry allows for new solutions to the solar and atmospheric neutrino problems that do not involve modification of the original charged fermion Yukawa textures, or the introduction of sterile neutrinos.Comment: 12 pages RevTeX, 1 eps figure. A few typos correcte

    Sequential actions of Rab5 and Rab7 regulate endocytosis in the Xenopus oocyte

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    To explore the role of GTPases in endocytosis, we developed an assay using Xenopus oocytes injected with recombinant proteins to follow the uptake of the fluid phase marker HRP. HRP uptake was inhibited in cells injected with GTPγ S or incubated with aluminum fluoride, suggesting a general role for GTPases in endocytosis. Injection of Rab5 into oocytes, as well as Rab5:Q79L, a mutant with decreased GTPase activity, increased HRP uptake. Injection of Rab5:S34N, the dominant-negative mutant, inhibited HRP uptake. Injection of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) stimulated HRP uptake, and ATPase-defective NSF mutants inhibited HRP uptake when coinjected with Rab5:Q79L, confirming a requirement for NSF in endocytosis. Surprisingly, injection of Rab7:WT stimulated both uptake and degradation/activation of HRP. The latter appears to be due to enhanced transport to a late endosomal/prelysosomal degradative compartment that is monensin sensitive. Enhancement of uptake by Rab7 appears to function via an Rab5-sensitive pathway in oocytes since the stimulatory effect of Rab7 was blocked by coinjection of Rab5:S34N. Stimulation of uptake by Rab5 was blocked by Rab5:S34N but not by Rab7:T22N. Our results suggest that Rab7, while functioning downstream of Rab5, may be rate limiting for endocytosis in oocytes

    Constraints on Natural MNS Parameters from |U_e3|

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    The MNS matrix structure emerging as a result of recent neutrino measurements strongly suggests two large mixing angles (solar and atmospheric) and one small angle (|U_e3| << 1). Especially when combined with the neutrino mass hierarchy, these values turn out to impose rather stringent constraints on possible flavor models connecting the three active fermion generations. Specifically, we show that an extremely small value of |U_e3| would require fine tuning of Majorana mass matrix parameters, particularly in the context of seesaw models.Comment: 21 pages, ReVTeX, 2 .eps figure files, updated references and acknowledgment

    Maximal Neutrino Mixing from a Minimal Flavor Symmetry

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    We study a number of models, based on a non-Abelian discrete group, that successfully reproduce the simple and predictive Yukawa textures usually associated with U(2) theories of flavor. These models allow for solutions to the solar and atmospheric neutrino problems that do not require altering successful predictions for the charged fermions or introducing sterile neutrinos. Although Yukawa matrices are hierarchical in the models we consider, the mixing between second- and third-generation neutrinos is naturally large. We first present a quantitative analysis of a minimal model proposed in earlier work, consisting of a global fit to fermion masses and mixing angles, including the most important renormalization group effects. We then propose two new variant models: The first reproduces all important features of the SU(5)xU(2) unified theory with neither SU(5) nor U(2). The second demonstrates that discrete subgroups of SU(2) can be used in constructing viable supersymmetric theories of flavor without scalar universality even though SU(2) by itself cannot.Comment: 34 pages LaTeX, 1 eps figure, minor revisions and references adde

    Incidental Prostate Cancer in Transurethral Resection of the Prostate Specimens in the Modern Era

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    Objectives. To identify rates of incidentally detected prostate cancer in patients undergoing surgical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Materials and Methods. A retrospective review was performed on all transurethral resections of the prostate (TURP) regardless of technique from 2006 to 2011 at a single tertiary care institution. 793 men (ages 45–90) were identified by pathology specimen. Those with a known diagnosis of prostate cancer prior to TURP were excluded (n=22) from the analysis. Results. 760 patients had benign pathology; eleven (1.4%) patients were found to have prostate cancer. Grade of disease ranged from Gleason 3+3=6 to Gleason 3+4=7. Nine patients had cT1a disease and two had cT1b disease. Seven patients were managed by active surveillance with no further events, one patient underwent radiation, and three patients underwent radical prostatectomy. Conclusions. Our series demonstrates that 1.4% of patients were found to have prostate cancer, of these 0.5% required treatment. Given the low incidental prostate cancer detection rate, the value of pathologic review of TURP specimens may be limited depending on the patient population

    SUSY violation in effective theories

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    We show that the effective theory of a supersymmetric model can violate SUSY at the level of dimension six operators and higher. This phenomenon occurs in gauge theories which involve heavy vector-superfields and different mass scales. It appears in SUSY GUT theories and is important in models of propagating Higgs boundstates.Comment: 10 pages, LaTeX-2.09. Submitted to Phys.Lett.

    Detection of SUSY in the Stau-Neutralino Coannihilation Region at the LHC

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    We study the feasibility of detecting the stau neutralino (stau_1-neutralino_1)coannihilation region at the LHC using tau leptons. The signal is characterized by multiple low energy tau leptons from neutralino_2-->tau stau_1-->tau tau neutralino_1 decays, where the stau_1 and neutralino_1 mass difference (Delta M) is constrained to be 5-15 GeV by current experimental bounds including the bound on the amount of neutralino cold dark matter. Within the framework of minimal supergravity models, we show that if hadronically decaying tau's can be identified with 50% efficiency for visible pt >20 GeV the observation of such signals is possible in the final state of two tau leptons plus large missing energy and two jets. With a gluino mass of 830 GeV the signal can be observed with as few as 3-10 fb^-1 of data (depending on the size of Delta M). Using a mass measurement of the tau pairs with 10 fb^-1 we can determine dM with a statistical uncertainty of 12% for Delta M = 10 GeV and an additional systematic uncertainty of 14% if the gluino mass has an uncertainty of 5%.Comment: 15 pages. 9 Figures, Latex, Typing error in the title as it appeared in the web listing is corrected, paper is unchange

    Un análisis multinivel de población y deforestación en el Parque Nacional Sierra de Lacandón (Petén, Guatemala)

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    Este estudio examina los factores demográficos asociados con la deforestación en el Parque Nacional Sierra de Lacandón (PNSL), Guatemala, utilizando un análisis de regresión multinivel. Más del 10% del PNSL ha sido deforestado desde mediados de la década de 1980, a causa del crecimiento demográfico de la población campesina y su subsiguiente manejo de la tierra. Utilizando un análisis de regresión múltiple de dos niveles, este estudio examina datos demográficos y otras características de los hogares para explicar variaciones en el bosque roturado entre 241 fincas agrícolas en ocho comunidades en el PNSL. Esta metodología, novedosa en el estudio de uso del suelo en los trópicos, toma en cuenta la variación espacial entre comunidades, así como entre hogares. Al usar modelos de multinivel, se puede llegar a resultados mejores sobre los impactos de los factores, tanto a nivel de comunidad como a nivel de hogar sobre la deforestación, con implicaciones más adecuadas para políticas de desarrollo.Aquest estudi examina els factors demogràfics associats amb la desforestació al Parc Nacional Sierra de Lacandon (PNSL), Guatemala, mitjançant una anàlisi de regressió multinivell. Més del 10 % del PNSL ha estat desforestat des de la meitat de la dècada de 1980, com a conseqüència del creixement demogràfic i les pràctiques de gestió agrícola. Utilitzant una anàlisi de regressió múltiple de dos nivells, aquest estudi examina dades demogràfiques i unes altres característiques de les llars per explicar variacions en el bosc artigat entre 241 finques agrícoles en vuit comunitats al PNSL. Aquesta metodologia té en compte la variació especial entre comunitats i entre llars, i abans no havia estat mai aplicada als tròpics. El model de regressió multinivell pot ajudar a explicar millor els impactes de factors propis de les comunitats i de les llars en la desforestació, per tant, pot contribuir a millorar les polítiques de desenvolupament.Cette étude a examiné les facteurs démographiques associés au phénomène de déforestation du Parc National Sierra de Lacandón (PNSL, Guatemala) en utilisant une analyse de régression multi-niveau. Depuis le milieu des années 1980, plus de 10 % du PNSL a été déboisé par la croissance démographique de la population rurale, son besoin en surface et l'utilisation variée de la terre. En utilisant une analyse de régression multiple de deux niveaux, cette étude examine des données démographiques et plusieurs caractéristiques liées aux exploitations, dans le but d'expliquer les variations dans le parc défriché entre 241 propriétés agricoles dans huit communautés du PNSL. Cette méthodologie, nouvelle dans l'étude de l'usage du sol dans les tropiques, prend en compte la variation spatiale entre des communautés ainsi que des exploitations. En utilisant ces modèles de multi-niveaux, on peut arriver à de meilleurs résultats concernant les impacts des facteurs au niveau des communautés et des exploitations concernant la déforestation, avec des résultats plus adapatées pour les politiques de développement.The paper examines depopulation factors associated with deforestation in the Natural park of the Sierra de Lacandón (PNSL), using multi-level regresión analysis. More than 10 percent of the park area has been deforested since the mid 1980s because of rural population growth and agricultural practices. By means of a two-level regression analysis the study use dem ographic and other household data to explain variations in deforested land in 241 agricultural estates in 8 communities of the PNSL. The methodology, not applied before in the tropics, takes into account spatial variations between communities and households. Multilvel regression allows for better results on the impacts of socioeconomic factors on deforestation, both at the community and at the household levels with important implications for development policies

    Collider Signatures of the N=3 Lee-Wick Standard Model

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    Inspired by the Lee-Wick higher-derivative approach to quantum field theory, Grinstein, O'Connell, and Wise have illustrated the utility of introducing into the Standard Model negative-norm states that cancel quadratic divergences in loop diagrams, thus posing a potential resolution of the hierarchy problem. Subsequent work has shown that consistency with electroweak precision parameters requires many of the partner states to be too massive to be detected at the LHC. We consider the phenomenology of a yet-higher derivative theory that exhibits three poles in its bare propagators (hence N=3), whose states alternate in norm. We examine the interference effects of W boson partners on LHC scattering cross sections, and find that the N=3 LWSM already makes verifiable predictions at 10 fb^(-1) of integrated luminosity.Comment: 15 pages, 4 PDF figures. Version accepted for publication by JHE
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