1,905 research outputs found

    Enhancement of metabolite production in high-altitude microalgal strains by optimized C/N/P ratio

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    This study evaluated the role of C/N/P in the increase in the synthesis of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids in two high-mountain strains of algae (Chlorella sp. UFPS019 and Desmodesmus sp. UFPS021). Three carbon sources (sodium acetate, sodium carbonate, and sodium bicarbonate), and the sources of nitrogen (NaNO3) and phosphate (KH2PO4 and K2HPO4) were analyzed using a surface response (3 factors, 2 levels). In Chlorella sp. UFPS019, the optimal conditions to enhance the synthesis of carbohydrates were high sodium carbonate content (3.53 g/L), high KH2PO4 and K2HPO4 content (0.06 and 0.14 g/L, respectively), and medium-high NaNO3 (0.1875 g/L). In the case of lipids, a high concentration of sodium acetate (1.19 g/L) coupled with high KH2PO4 and K2HPO4 content (0.056 and 0.131 g/L, respectively) and a low concentration of NaNO3 (0.075 g/L) drastically induced the synthesis of lipids. In the case of Desmodesmus sp. UFPS021, the protein content was increased using high sodium acetate (2 g/L), high KH2PO4 and K2HPO4 content (0.056 and 0.131 g/L, respectively), and high NaNO3 concentration (0.25 g/L). These results demonstrate that the correct adjustment of the C/N/P ratio can enhance the capacity of high-mountain strains of algae to produce high concentrations of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids

    Identification, clinical manifestation and structural mechanisms of mutations in AMPK associated cardiac glycogen storage disease

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    BACKGROUND: Although 21 causative mutations have been associated with PRKAG2 syndrome, our understanding of the syndrome remains incomplete. The aim of this project is to further investigate its unique genetic background, clinical manifestations, and underlying structural changes. METHODS: We recruited 885 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) probands and their families internationally. Targeted next-generation sequencing of sudden cardiac death (SCD) genes was performed. The role of the identified variants was assessed using histological techniques and computational modeling. FINDINGS: Twelve PRKAG2 syndrome kindreds harboring 5 distinct variants were identified. The clinical penetrance of 25 carriers was 100.0%. Twenty-two family members died of SCD or heart failure (HF). All probands developed bradycardia (HRmin, 36.3+/-9.8bpm) and cardiac conduction defects, and 33% had evidence of atrial fibrillation/paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) and 67% had ventricular preexcitation, respectively. Some carriers presented with apical hypertrophy, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and renal insufficiency. Histological study revealed reduced AMPK activity and major cardiac channels in the heart tissue with K485E mutation. Computational modelling suggests that K485E disrupts the salt bridge connecting the beta and gamma subunits of AMPK, R302Q/P decreases the binding affinity for ATP, T400N and H401D alter the orientation of H383 and R531 residues, thus altering nucleotide binding, and N488I and L341S lead to structural instability in the Bateman domain, which disrupts the intramolecular regulation. INTERPRETATION: Including 4 families with 3 new mutations, we describe a cohort of 12 kindreds with PRKAG2 syndrome with novel pathogenic mechanisms by computational modelling. Severe clinical cardiac phenotypes may be developed, including HF, requiring close follow-up

    Search for squarks and gluinos in events with isolated leptons, jets and missing transverse momentum at s‚ąö=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    The results of a search for supersymmetry in final states containing at least one isolated lepton (electron or muon), jets and large missing transverse momentum with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are reported. The search is based on proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy s‚ąö=8 TeV collected in 2012, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20 fb‚ąí1. No significant excess above the Standard Model expectation is observed. Limits are set on supersymmetric particle masses for various supersymmetric models. Depending on the model, the search excludes gluino masses up to 1.32 TeV and squark masses up to 840 GeV. Limits are also set on the parameters of a minimal universal extra dimension model, excluding a compactification radius of 1/R c = 950 GeV for a cut-off scale times radius (őõR c) of approximately 30

    Evidence for the Higgs-boson Yukawa coupling to tau leptons with the ATLAS detector