505 research outputs found

    Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Statin Use and Mortality, Intensive Care Unit Admission and Requirement for Mechanical Ventilation in COVID-19 Patients

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    There is mounting evidence that statin use is beneficial for COVID-19 outcomes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the association between statin use and mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mechanical ventilation in COVID-19 patients, on studies which provided covariate adjusted effect estimates, or performed propensity score matching. We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Scopus for studies and extracted odds or hazard ratios for specified outcome measures. Data synthesis was performed using a random-effects inverse variance method. Risk of bias, heterogeneity and publication bias were analyzed using standard methods. Our results show that statin use was associated with significant reductions in mortality (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.67–0.77; HR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.79), ICU admission (OR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89–0.99; HR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.60–0.96) and mechanical ventilation (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.78–0.92; HR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.47–0.97). Nevertheless, current retrospective studies are based on the antecedent use of statins prior to infection and/or continued use of statin after hospital admission. The results may not apply to the de novo commencement of statin treatment after developing COVID-19 infection. Prospective studies are lacking and necessary

    High Speed photometry of faint Cataclysmic Variables: I. V359 Cen, XZ Eri, HY Lup, V351 Pup, V630 Sgr, YY Tel, CQ Vel, CE-315

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    The first results of a photometric survey of faint Cataclysmic Variables are presented. V359 Cen is an SU UMa star with a period of 112 min. Even though observed at quiescence, the mass transfer rate in this old nova may be sufficiently high that in such a short period system (with its implied small mass ratio) the disc may be excited into an elliptical shape with the result that the observed brightness modulation gives a superhump period rather than an orbital period. XZ Eri is an eclipsing dwarf nova with an orbital period (P(orb)) of 88.1 min. HY Lup has only slight variability. V351 Pup, the remnant of Nova Puppis 1991, has P(orb) = 2.837 h and a light curve that strongly resembles that of the magnetic Nova Cyg 1975. V630 Sgr is the first nova remnant that has both positive superhumps (P(sh) = 2.980 h) and eclipses (P(orb) = 2.831 h). The YY Tel identification is somewhat uncertain. The correct identification for CQ Vel is provided from discovery of its flickering activity. The light curve of CE-315, a recently discovered AM CVn star, shows similarities to that of GP Com, with no apparent orbital modulation.Comment: 8 pages, 12 figures, accepted for publication in MNRA

    Estimating behavior in a black box : how coastal oceanographic dynamics influence yearling Chinook salmon marine growth and migration behaviors

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    Ocean currents or temperature may substantially influence migration behavior in many marine species. However, high-resolution data on animal movement in the marine environment are scarce; therefore, analysts and managers must typically rely on unvalidated assumptions regarding movement, behavior, and habitat use. We used a spatially explicit, individual-based model of early marine migration with two stocks of yearling Chinook salmon to quantify the influence of external forces on estimates of swim speed, consumption, and growth. Model results suggest that salmon behaviorally compensate for changes in the strength and direction of ocean currents. These compensations can result in salmon swimming several times farther than their net movement (straight-line distance) would indicate. However, the magnitude of discrepancy between compensated and straight-line distances varied between oceanographic models. Nevertheless, estimates of relative swim speed among fish groups were less sensitive to the choice of model than estimates of absolute individual swim speed. By comparing groups of fish, this tool can be applied to management questions, such as how experiences and behavior may differ between groups of hatchery fish released early vs. later in the season. By taking into account the experiences and behavior of individual fish, as well as the influence of physical ocean processes, our approach helps illuminate the “black box” of juvenile salmon behavior in the early marine phase of the life cycle

    Fatal cases of Theileria annulata infection in calves in Portugal associated with neoplastic-like lymphoid cell proliferation

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    The authors describe 15 cases of acute lethal infection of calves (≤ 4 months of age) by the protozoan parasite Theileria annulata in the south of Portugal. Calves developed multifocal to coalescent nodular skin lesions, similar to multicentric malignant lymphoma. Infestation with ticks (genus Hyalomma) was intense. Theileria was seen in blood and lymph node smears, and Theileria annulata infection was confirmed by isolation of schizont-transformed cells and sequencing of hypervariable region 4 of the 18S rRNA gene. At necropsy, hemorrhagic nodules or nodules with a hemorrhagic halo were seen, particularly in the skin, subcutaneous tissue, skeletal and cardiac muscle, pharynx, trachea and intestinal serosa. Histologically nodules were formed by large, round, lymphoblastoid neoplastic-like cells. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) identified these cells as mostly CD3 positive T lymphocytes and MAC387 positive macrophages. A marker for B lymphocytes (CD79αcy) labelled very few cells. Theileria annulata infected cells in these nodules were also identified by IHC, through the use of two monoclonal antibodies (1C7 and 1C12) diagnostic for the parasite. It was concluded that the pathological changes observed in the different organs and tissues were caused by proliferation of schizont-infected macrophages, which subsequently stimulate a severe uncontrolled proliferation of uninfected T lymphocytes

    Prevalence of non-communicable diseases and their risk factors in Papua New Guinea: A systematic review

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    Introduction: The mortality associated with non-communicable diseases has increased significantly in most countries in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region over the last 20 years, as have the underlying risk factors. This study aimed to collate evidence on the prevalence of four major non-communicable diseases and their risk factors in Papua New Guinea in order to inform appropriate policy for their prevention and management. Methods: We performed a systematic review of Papua New Guinea-based population prevalence studies of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic respiratory diseases, and cancers, as well as non-communicable disease risk factors published before 2016. Five online databases were searched and screened against eligibility criteria according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Results: A total of 57 articles were included in this review, most of which (n = 48) were published prior to 2000. Eleven articles reported on diabetes, six reported on chronic lung disease/asthma, two reported on cardiovascular diseases, and two reported cancer as the primary outcome, while the remaining 36 papers reported non-communicable disease risk factors. Conclusion: This review demonstrated variations in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (0%–19%) and their risk factors (0%–80.6%) attributed to the lifestyle and genetic diversity of the Papua New Guinea population. There is a strong suggestion that the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (particularly type 2 diabetes mellitus) and key non-communicable disease risk factors (hypertension, overweight, and obesity) has increased, but there is a lack of recent data. As such, there is an urgent need for new and up-to-date data in all areas of Papua New Guinea

    Acute bilateral anterior circulation stroke due to anomalous cerebral vasculature: a case report

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Introduction</p> <p>Simultaneous bilateral cerebrovascular infarction is relatively rare and its initial presentation as a space-occupying lesion is extremely uncommon. However, bilateral infarction can result from unilateral occlusion of anomalous cerebral vasculature.</p> <p>Case presentation</p> <p>We report the case of a man presenting with lower limb weakness and aphasia of acute onset with initial computerised tomography suggesting bifrontal neoplasm. However, further investigation confirmed bilateral anterior cerebral artery territory infarction with a hypoplastic left anterior cerebral artery with the right anterior cerebral artery supplying both frontal lobes (an anatomical variant). We present the clinical and diagnostic features of this presentation and attempt to ascertain, by reviewing existent medical literature, the frequency and patterns of structural variations in cerebral vasculature.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Simultaneous bilateral cerebral infarction can be the result of a unilateral cerebral artery occlusion and this can potentially mimic a space-occupying lesion. Anomalies of cerebral vasculature are not as rare as is usually believed and this should be borne in mind when investigating unusual presentations of cerebrovascular infarction.</p
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