69 research outputs found

    Predoctoral Dental Students’ Perceptions of Dental Implant Training: Effect of Preclinical Simulation and Clinical Experience

    Get PDF
    The aims of this study were to assess 1) differences in perceptions of dental implant training between dental students who received didactic training alone (control group) and those who received didactic plus simulation training (test group); 2) differences in response between students with and without clinical experience in implant dentistry; and 3) the interaction effect of simulation training and clinical experience on students’ satisfaction. A survey was distributed to the control group in 2014 and to the test group in 2015; both groups were at the same U.S. dental school. Data were collected on confidence levels with various implant restorative procedures along with overall satisfaction and number of implant restorations performed by each student. The response rate was 78.7% in the control group and 81.3% in the test group. In the control group, 85.7% of students reported being satisfied with implant training compared to 90.8% of students in the test group. The interaction effect of simulation training and clinical experience on overall student satisfaction was OR=1.5 at 95% CI: 0.8, 3.0. The students who had clinical experience with implant restorative procedures had significantly greater satisfaction than those who did not (OR=4.8, 95% CI: 2.1, 11.1,

    Bayesian Decision Theoretic Approach to Directional Multiple Hypotheses Problems

    Get PDF
    A multiple hypothesis problem with directional alternatives is considered in a decision theoretic framework. Skewness in the alternatives is considered, and it is shown that this skewness permits the Bayes rules to possess certain advantages when one direction of the alternatives is more important or more probable than the other direction. Bayes rules subject to constraints on certain directional false discovery rates are obtained, and their performances are compared with a traditional FDR rule through simulation. We also analyzed a gene expression data using our methodology, and compare the results to that of a FDR method

    Empirical Bayes and Hierarchical Bayes Estimation of Skew Normal Populations

    Get PDF
    We develop empirical and hierarchical Bayesian methodologies for the skew normal populations through the EM algorithm and the Gibbs sampler. A general concept of skewness to the normal distribution is considered throughout. Motivations are given for considering the skew normal population in applications, and an example is presented to demonstrate why the skew normal distribution is more applicable than the normal distribution for certain applications

    Hypothesis Testing for High-Dimensional Problems

    Get PDF
    For high-dimensional hypothesis problems, new approaches have emerged since the publication. The most promising of them uses Bayesian approach. In this chapter, we review some of the past approaches applicable to only law-dimensional hypotheses testing and contrast it with the modern approaches of high-dimensional hypotheses testing. We review some of the new results based on Bayesian decision theory and show how Bayesian approach can be used to accommodate directional hypotheses testing and skewness in the alternatives. A real example of gene expression data is used to demonstrate a Bayesian decision theoretic approach to directional hypotheses testing with skewed alternatives

    Stage Based Interventions for Low Fat Diet with Middle School Students

    Get PDF
    Preventing obesity and cardiovascular disease at early ages is important; however, few effective interventions for early adolescents have been reported. In this study, low-income, culturally diverse students from an urban middle school (n = 60) received four classroom interventions with the use of a combined Health Promotion/Transtheoretical Model to control fat in diet and increase physical activity. A control group (n = 57) received the usual classroom education. Pretest percentage fat in diet was regressed on demographics, access to low-fat foods, perceived self-efficacy, benefits/barriers, and stage of change with results as proposed by the model [F(9,64) = 5.77; p = .000; adjusted R2 = 0.35]. Posttest percentage fat in food was significantly less for the intervention group as compared with the control group (t = 2.06; df, 115; p = .04)

    Interproximal Distance Analysis of Stereolithographic Casts Made by CAD-CAM Technology: An in Vitro Study

    Get PDF
    Statement of problem The accuracy of interproximal distances of the definitive casts made by computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology is not yet known. Purpose The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the interproximal distances of stereolithographic casts made by CAD-CAM technology with those of stone casts made by the conventional method. Material and methods Dentoform teeth were prepared for a single ceramic crown on the maxillary left central incisor, a 3-unit fixed dental prosthesis (FDP) on the second premolar for a metal-ceramic crown, and a maxillary right first molar for a metal crown. Twenty digital intraoral impressions were made on the dentoform with an intraoral digital impression scanner. The digital impression files were used to fabricate 20 sets of stereolithographic casts, 10 definitive casts for the single ceramic crown, and 10 definitive casts for the FDP. Furthermore, 20 stone casts were made by the conventional method using polyvinyl siloxane impression material with a custom tray. Each definitive cast for stereolithographic cast and stone cast consisted of removable die-sectioned casts (DC) and nonsectioned solid casts (SC). Measurements of interproximal distance of each cast were made using CAD software to provide mean ±standard deviation (SD) values. Data were first analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), using different methods of cast fabrication (stone and stereolithography) as one within subject factor and different cast types (DC and SC) as another within subject factor. Post hoc analyses were performed to investigate the differences between stone and stereolithographic casts depending upon the results from the repeated measures ANOVA (α=.05). Results Analysis of interproximal distances showed the mean ±SD value of the single ceramic crown group was 31.2 ±24.5 μm for stone casts and 261.0 ±116.1 μm for stereolithographic casts, whereas the mean ±SD value for the FDP group was 46.0 ±35.0 μm for stone casts and 292.8 ±216.6 μm for stereolithographic casts. For both the single ceramic crown and the FDP groups, there were significant differences in interproximal distances between stereolithographic casts and stone casts (P\u3c.001). In addition, the comparisons of DC with SC of stone and stereolithographic casts for the single ceramic crown and FDP groups demonstrated there was statistically significant differences among interproximal distances between DC stereolithographic casts and SC stereolithographic casts only for the FDP group (P\u3c.001). Conclusions For both the single ceramic crown and the FDP groups, the stereolithographic cast group showed significantly larger interproximal distances than the stone cast group. In terms of the comparison between DC and SC, DC stereolithographic casts for the FDP group only showed significantly larger interproximal values than those of the SC stereolithographic casts for the FDP group

    Empirical Bayesian Approach to Testing Multiple Hypotheses with Separate Priors for Left and Right Alternatives

    Get PDF
    We consider a multiple hypotheses problem with directional alternatives in a decision theoretic framework. We obtain an empirical Bayes rule subject to a constraint on mixed directional false discovery rate (mdFDR≤α) under the semiparametric setting where the distribution of the test statistic is parametric, but the prior distribution is nonparametric. We proposed separate priors for the left tail and right tail alternatives as it may be required for many applications. The proposed Bayes rule is compared through simulation against rules proposed by Benjamini and Yekutieli and Efron. We illustrate the proposed methodology for two sets of data from biological experiments: HIV-transfected cell-line mRNA expression data, and a quantitative trait genome-wide SNP data set. We have developed a user-friendly web-based shiny App for the proposed method which is available through URL https://npseb.shinyapps.io/npseb/. The HIV and SNP data can be directly accessed, and the results presented in this paper can be executed

    Interproximal Distance Analysis of Stereolithographic Casts Made by CAD-CAM Technology: An in Vitro Study

    Get PDF
    Statement of problem The accuracy of interproximal distances of the definitive casts made by computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology is not yet known. Purpose The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the interproximal distances of stereolithographic casts made by CAD-CAM technology with those of stone casts made by the conventional method. Material and methods Dentoform teeth were prepared for a single ceramic crown on the maxillary left central incisor, a 3-unit fixed dental prosthesis (FDP) on the second premolar for a metal-ceramic crown, and a maxillary right first molar for a metal crown. Twenty digital intraoral impressions were made on the dentoform with an intraoral digital impression scanner. The digital impression files were used to fabricate 20 sets of stereolithographic casts, 10 definitive casts for the single ceramic crown, and 10 definitive casts for the FDP. Furthermore, 20 stone casts were made by the conventional method using polyvinyl siloxane impression material with a custom tray. Each definitive cast for stereolithographic cast and stone cast consisted of removable die-sectioned casts (DC) and nonsectioned solid casts (SC). Measurements of interproximal distance of each cast were made using CAD software to provide mean ±standard deviation (SD) values. Data were first analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), using different methods of cast fabrication (stone and stereolithography) as one within subject factor and different cast types (DC and SC) as another within subject factor. Post hoc analyses were performed to investigate the differences between stone and stereolithographic casts depending upon the results from the repeated measures ANOVA (α=.05). Results Analysis of interproximal distances showed the mean ±SD value of the single ceramic crown group was 31.2 ±24.5 μm for stone casts and 261.0 ±116.1 μm for stereolithographic casts, whereas the mean ±SD value for the FDP group was 46.0 ±35.0 μm for stone casts and 292.8 ±216.6 μm for stereolithographic casts. For both the single ceramic crown and the FDP groups, there were significant differences in interproximal distances between stereolithographic casts and stone casts (P\u3c.001). In addition, the comparisons of DC with SC of stone and stereolithographic casts for the single ceramic crown and FDP groups demonstrated there was statistically significant differences among interproximal distances between DC stereolithographic casts and SC stereolithographic casts only for the FDP group (P\u3c.001). Conclusions For both the single ceramic crown and the FDP groups, the stereolithographic cast group showed significantly larger interproximal distances than the stone cast group. In terms of the comparison between DC and SC, DC stereolithographic casts for the FDP group only showed significantly larger interproximal values than those of the SC stereolithographic casts for the FDP group

    Empirical Bayesian Approach to Testing Multiple Hypotheses with Separate Priors for Left and Right Alternatives

    Get PDF
    We consider a multiple hypotheses problem with directional alternatives in a decision theoretic framework. We obtain an empirical Bayes rule subject to a constraint on mixed directional false discovery rate (mdFDR≤α) under the semiparametric setting where the distribution of the test statistic is parametric, but the prior distribution is nonparametric. We proposed separate priors for the left tail and right tail alternatives as it may be required for many applications. The proposed Bayes rule is compared through simulation against rules proposed by Benjamini and Yekutieli and Efron. We illustrate the proposed methodology for two sets of data from biological experiments: HIV-transfected cell-line mRNA expression data, and a quantitative trait genome-wide SNP data set. We have developed a user-friendly web-based shiny App for the proposed method which is available through URL https://npseb.shinyapps.io/npseb/. The HIV and SNP data can be directly accessed, and the results presented in this paper can be executed

    On the Mixtures of Weibull and Pareto (IV) Distribution: An Alternative to Pareto Distribution

    Get PDF
    Finite mixture models have provided a reasonable tool to model various types of observed phenomena, specially those which are random in nature. In this article, a finite mixture of Weibull and Pareto (IV) distribution is considered and studied. Some structural properties of the resulting model are discussed including estimation of the model parameters via expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. A real-life data application exhibits the fact that in certain situations, this mixture model might be a better alternative than the rival popular models
    corecore