10 research outputs found

    Pharmacodynamics of Tigecycline against Phenotypically Diverse Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in a Murine Thigh Model ▿

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    Tigecycline is a currently marketed antimicrobial agent with activity against resistant gram-positive cocci, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Despite the proven efficacy of tigecycline in the treatment of infections caused by these pathogens, questions remain as to the exposure-response relationship best associated with its efficacy. The purpose of this study was to define this relationship against seven distinct S. aureus isolates by using a neutropenic murine thigh model. Single-dose pharmacokinetics were evaluated, and free drug exposures were calculated after determination of protein binding. Doses of 1.56 to 400 mg/kg of body weight divided 1 to 8 times daily were administered against two methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates, two hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) isolates, and three community-associated (CA-MRSA) isolates. Tigecycline pharmacokinetics were best described by a two-compartment model, with a mean half-life of 9.9 h. Protein binding was dose dependent (range, 92.9 to 81.2%). MICs were 0.25 μg/ml for all isolates, except for HA-MRSA 56 (MIC, 0.5 μg/ml) and CA-MRSA 156 (MIC, 0.125 μg/ml). Tigecycline displayed efficacy against all isolates, producing maximum decreases in log10 numbers of CFU/ml of 1.8 to 2.3 from 0-h controls. Mean correlation coefficients for free-drug (f) concentration exposures derived from the parameters fT>MIC (the percentage of time during which the concentration of f remains above the MIC), fCmax/MIC (the ratio of the maximum concentration of f to the MIC), and fAUC/MIC (the ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve of f to the MIC) were 0.622, 0.812, and 0.958, respectively. Values for the mean effective exposure index at 80% (EI80) and 50% (EI50) for fAUC/MIC were 5.4 μg/ml (range, 2.8 to 13 μg/ml) and 2.6 μg/ml (range, 0.6 to 5.1 μg/ml), respectively. Experiments with nonneutropenic mice infected with CA-MRSA 156 resulted in maximum kill at all fAUC/MIC exposures tested (1.8 to 8.8 μg/ml). The fAUC/MIC ratio is the pharmacodynamic parameter most predictive of tigecycline efficacy. Furthermore, the presence of a functioning immune system markedly reduces the required exposure

    Pharmacodynamic Profile of Ertapenem against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli in a Murine Thigh Model

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    The pharmacodynamic profile of ertapenem was evaluated in a neutropenic mouse thigh infection model. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive and ESBL-negative clinical strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were studied. MICs ranged from 0.0078 to 0.06 μg/ml with standard inoculum tests. Ertapenem doses were administered once to five times daily to achieve various exposures, reported as the percentage of the dosing interval that the concentration of free ertapenem was in excess of the MIC (%T>MIC(free)). Mean values for the static exposure and 80% maximally effective exposure (ED(80)) were 19% (range, 2 to 38%) and 33% (range, 13 to 65%) T>MIC(free), respectively. Differences in exposure requirements based on the presence of an ESBL resistance mechanism or bacterial species were not evident. In addition, experiments using a 100-fold higher inoculum did not decrease the magnitude of the reduction in bacterial density from baseline achieved compared to lower-inoculum studies. The pharmacodynamic parameter of %T>MIC(free) correlated well with bactericidal activity for all isolates, and the static and ED(80) exposures are consistent with those reported previously for carbapenems

    Pharmacodynamic Profile of Tigecycline against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an Experimental Pneumonia Model▿

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    Tigecycline (TGC) is an extended-spectrum antibiotic with activity against Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin (meticillin)-resistant S. aureus strains, which are well-recognized pathogens in nosocomial pneumonia. The objective of this study was to characterize the exposure-response relationship for TGC against S. aureus in an immunocompromised BALB/c murine pneumonia model. Six S. aureus isolates were studied, and the TGC MICs for those isolates ranged from 0.125 to 0.5 mg/liter. The pharmacokinetics (PK) of TGC in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were evaluated, as was the level of protein binding of the compound in this murine species. Administration of TGC at 1.56 to 150 mg/kg of body weight/day in single or two to three divided doses was used in the efficacy studies. TGC displayed linear PK and had a mean half-life of 10.9 ± 2.5 h. Efficacy was highly correlated with the area under the free concentration-time curve (fAUC)/MIC (r2 = 0.93). The 80% and 50% effective exposure indexes and the stasis exposure index were similar between the isolates (means ± standard deviations, 3.04 ± 1.12, 1.84 ± 1.3, and 1.9 ± 1.5, respectively). Maximal efficacy was predicted at a 2.85-log10-CFU reduction. TGC appeared to accumulate in the interstitial space, as the ratios of the fAUC from 0 to 8 h of epithelial lining fluid to plasma were 7.02, 15.11, and 23.95 for doses of 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg, respectively. TGC was highly effective in this murine pneumonia model. In light of current MIC distributions, the fAUC/MIC targets that we defined against S. aureus are readily achievable in humans given conventional doses of TGC

    Determination of the In Vivo Pharmacodynamic Profile of Cefepime against Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli at Various Inocula

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    Cefepime was evaluated in vivo against two inoculum sizes of four strains of Escherichia coli that produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in a murine neutropenic thigh infection model to characterize the pharmacodynamic activity of cefepime in the presence of ESBL-producing bacteria and to evaluate if differences in lengths of cefepime exposure are required with various inocula. Three strains possessed a single enzyme each: TEM-10, TEM-12, and TEM-26. The fourth strain possessed two TEM-derived ESBLs and a third uncharacterized enzyme. Two non-ESBL-producing E. coli strains were included for comparison. Mice received various doses of cefepime to achieve a spectrum of percentages of time the drug was above the MIC (%T>MICs) for each isolate at both inocula. No significant difference in cefepime exposure was required to achieve similar bactericidal effects for ESBL- and non-ESBL-producing isolates when the starting inoculum was 10(5) CFU of E. coli per thigh. The increased MICs observed in vitro for the ESBL-producing strains at 10(7) CFU/ml did not predict the amount of exposure required to achieve a comparable level of bactericidal activity in vivo at the corresponding starting inoculum of 10(7) CFU/thigh. Compared to the cefepime exposure in tests with the lower inoculum (10(5) CFU/thigh), less exposure was required when the starting inoculum was 10(7) CFU/thigh (%T>MIC, 6% versus 26%), such that similar doses (in milligrams per kilogram of body weight) produced similar bactericidal effects with both inocula of ESBL-producing isolates. Equivalent exposures of cefepime produced similar effects against the microorganisms regardless of the presence of ESBL production. Pharmacodynamic profiling undertaken with conventional cefepime MIC determinations predicted in vivo microbial outcomes at both inoculum sizes for the ESBL-producing isolates evaluated in this study. These data support the use of conventional MIC determinations in the pharmacodynamic assessment of cefepime

    Bronchopulmonary Disposition of Intravenous Voriconazole and Anidulafungin Given in Combination to Healthy Adults▿

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    Voriconazole and anidulafungin in combination are being investigated for use for the treatment of pulmonary aspergillosis. We determined the pulmonary disposition of these agents. Twenty healthy participants received intravenous voriconazole (at 6 mg/kg of body weight every 12 h [q12h] on day 1 and then at 4 mg/kg q12h) and anidulafungin (200 mg on day 1 and then 100 mg every 24 h) for 3 days. Five participants each were randomized for collection of bronchoalveolar lavage samples at times of 4, 8, 12, and 24 h. Drug penetration was determined by the ratio of the total drug area under the concentration-time curve during the dosing interval (AUC0-τ) for epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and alveolar macrophages (AM) to the total drug AUC0-τ in plasma. The mean (standard deviation) half-life and AUC0-τ were 6.9 (2.1) h and 39.5 (19.8) μg·h/ml, respectively, for voriconazole and 20.8 (3.1) h and 101 (21.8) μg·h/ml, respectively, for anidulafungin. The AUC0-τ values for ELF and AM were 282 and 178 μg·h/ml, respectively, for voriconazole, and 21.9 and 1,430 μg·h/ml, respectively, for anidulafungin. This resulted in penetration ratios into ELF and AM of 7.1 and 4.5, respectively, for voriconazole and 0.22 and 14.2, respectively, for anidulafungin. The mean total concentrations of both drugs in ELF and AM at 4, 8, 12, and 24 h remained above the MIC90/90% minimum effective concentration for most Aspergillus species. In healthy adult volunteers, voriconazole achieved high levels of exposure in both ELF and AM, while anidulafungin predominantly concentrated in AM