7,372 research outputs found

### Probing the low-luminosity GRB population with new generation satellite detectors

We compare the detection rates and redshift distributions of low-luminosity
(LL) GRBs localized by Swift with those expected to be observed by the new
generation satellite detectors on GLAST (now Fermi) and, in future, EXIST.
Although the GLAST burst telescope will be less sensitive than Swift's in the
15--150 keV band, its large field-of-view implies that it will double Swift's
detection rate of LL bursts. We show that Swift, GLAST and EXIST should detect
about 1, 2 & 30 LL GRBs, respectively, over a 5-year operational period. The
burst telescope on EXIST should detect LL GRBs at a rate of more than an order
of magnitude greater than that of Swift's BAT. We show that the detection
horizon for LL GRBs will be extended from $z \simeq 0.4$ for Swift to $z \simeq
1.1$ in the EXIST era. Also, the contribution of LL bursts to the observed GRB
redshift distribution will contribute to an identifiable feature in the
distribution at $z \simeq 1$.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figures, accepted by MNRA

### The Statistics of the BATSE Spectral Features

The absence of a BATSE line detection in a gamma-ray burst spectrum during
the mission's first six years has led to a statistical analysis of the
occurrence of lines in the BATSE burst database; this statistical analysis will
still be relevant if lines are detected. We review our methodology, and present
new simulations of line detectability as a function of the line parameters. We
also discuss the calculation of the number of ``trials'' in the BATSE database,
which is necessary for our line detection criteria.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figures, AIPPROC LaTeX, to appear in "Gamma-Ray Bursts,
4th Huntsville Symposium," eds. C. Meegan, R. Preece and T. Koshu

### Modelling crystal aggregation and deposition\ud in the catheterised lower urinary tract

Urethral catheters often become encrusted with crystals of magnesium struvite and calcium phosphate. The encrustation can block the catheter, which can cause urine retention in the bladder and reflux into the kidneys. We develop a mathematical model to investigate crystal deposition on the catheter surface, modelling the bladder as a reservoir of fluid and the urethral catheter as a rigid channel. At a constant rate, fluid containing crystal particles of unit size enters the reservoir, and flows from the reservoir through the channel and out of the system. The crystal particles aggregate, which we model using Becker–Döring coagulation theory, and are advected through the channel, where they continue to aggregate and are deposited on the channel’s walls. Inhibitor particles also enter the reservoir, and can bind to the crystals, preventing further aggregation and deposition. The crystal concentrations are spatially homogeneous in the reservoir, whereas the channel concentrations vary spatially as a result of advection, diffusion and deposition. We investigate the effect of inhibitor particles on the amount of deposition. For all parameter values, we find that crystals deposit along the full length of the channel, with maximum deposition close to the channel’s entrance

### Are Scattering Properties of Graphs Uniquely Connected to Their Shapes?

The famous question of Mark Kac "Can one hear the shape of a drum?"
addressing the unique connection between the shape of a planar region and the
spectrum of the corresponding Laplace operator can be legitimately extended to
scattering systems. In the modified version one asks whether the geometry of a
vibrating system can be determined by scattering experiments. We present the
first experimental approach to this problem in the case of microwave graphs
(networks) simulating quantum graphs. Our experimental results strongly
indicate a negative answer. To demonstrate this we consider scattering from a
pair of isospectral microwave networks consisting of vertices connected by
microwave coaxial cables and extended to scattering systems by connecting leads
to infinity to form isoscattering networks. We show that the amplitudes and
phases of the determinants of the scattering matrices of such networks are the
same within the experimental uncertainties. Furthermore, we demonstrate that
the scattering matrices of the networks are conjugated by the, so called,
transplantation relation.Comment: 3 figures; Physical Review Letters, 201

### The BATSE Gamma-Ray Burst Spectral Catalog. I. High Time Resolution Spectroscopy of Bright Bursts using High Energy Resolution Data

This is the first in a series of gamma-ray burst spectroscopy catalogs from
the Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray
Observatory, each covering a different aspect of burst phenomenology. In this
paper, we present time-sequences of spectral fit parameters for 156 bursts
selected for either their high peak flux or fluence. All bursts have at least
eight spectra in excess of 45 sigma above background and span burst durations
from 1.66 to 278 s. Individual spectral accumulations are typically 128 ms long
at the peak of the brightest events, but can be as short as 16 ms, depending on
the type of data selected. We have used mostly high energy resolution data from
the Large Area Detectors, covering an energy range of typically 28 - 1800 keV.
The spectral model chosen is from a small empirically-determined set of
functions, such as the well-known `GRB' function, that best fits the
time-averaged burst spectra. Thus, there are generally three spectral shape
parameters available for each of the 5500 total spectra: a low-energy power-law
index, a characteristic break energy and possibly a high-energy power-law
index. We present the distributions of the observed sets of these parameters
and comment on their implications. The complete set of data that accompanies
this paper is necessarily large, and thus is archived electronically at:
http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/ApJ/journal/.Comment: Accepted for publication: ApJS, 125. 38 pages, 9 figures;
supplementary electronic archive to be published by ApJ; available from lead
author upon reques

### Target Mass Monitoring and Instrumentation in the Daya Bay Antineutrino Detectors

The Daya Bay experiment measures sin^2 2{\theta}_13 using functionally
identical antineutrino detectors located at distances of 300 to 2000 meters
from the Daya Bay nuclear power complex. Each detector consists of three nested
fluid volumes surrounded by photomultiplier tubes. These volumes are coupled to
overflow tanks on top of the detector to allow for thermal expansion of the
liquid. Antineutrinos are detected through the inverse beta decay reaction on
the proton-rich scintillator target. A precise and continuous measurement of
the detector's central target mass is achieved by monitoring the the fluid
level in the overflow tanks with cameras and ultrasonic and capacitive sensors.
In addition, the monitoring system records detector temperature and levelness
at multiple positions. This monitoring information allows the precise
determination of the detectors' effective number of target protons during data
taking. We present the design, calibration, installation and in-situ tests of
the Daya Bay real-time antineutrino detector monitoring sensors and readout
electronics.Comment: 22 pages, 20 figures; accepted by JINST. Changes in v2: minor
revisions to incorporate editorial feedback from JINS

### Dynamics of nodal points and the nodal count on a family of quantum graphs

We investigate the properties of the zeros of the eigenfunctions on quantum
graphs (metric graphs with a Schr\"odinger-type differential operator). Using
tools such as scattering approach and eigenvalue interlacing inequalities we
derive several formulas relating the number of the zeros of the n-th
eigenfunction to the spectrum of the graph and of some of its subgraphs. In a
special case of the so-called dihedral graph we prove an explicit formula that
only uses the lengths of the edges, entirely bypassing the information about
the graph's eigenvalues. The results are explained from the point of view of
the dynamics of zeros of the solutions to the scattering problem.Comment: 34 pages, 12 figure

### A Statistical Treatment of the Gamma-Ray Burst "No Host Galaxy" Problem: II. Energies of Standard Candle Bursts

With the discovery that the afterglows after some bursts are coincident with
faint galaxies, the search for host galaxies is no longer a test of whether
bursts are cosmological, but rather a test of particular cosmological models.
The methodology we developed to investigate the original "no host galaxy"
problem is equally valid for testing different cosmological models, and is
applicable to the galaxies coincident with optical transients. We apply this
methodology to a family of models where we vary the total energy of standard
candle bursts. We find that total isotropic energies of E<2e52~erg are ruled
out while log(E)~53 erg is favored.Comment: To appear in Ap.J., 514, 15 pages + 7 figures, AASTeX 4.0. Revisions
are: additional author, updated data, and minor textual change

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