400 research outputs found

    Impact of antibiotic timing on mortality from Gram-negative bacteraemia in an English district general hospital: the importance of getting it right every time

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    Objectives: There is limited evidence that empirical antimicrobials affect patient-oriented outcomes in Gram-negative bacteraemia. We aimed to establish the impact of effective antibiotics at four consecutive timepoints on 30 day all-cause mortality and length of stay in hospital. / Methods: We performed a multivariable survival analysis on 789 patients with Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteraemias. Antibiotic choices at the time of the blood culture (BC), the time of medical clerking and 24 and 48 h post-BC were reviewed. / Results: Patients that received ineffective empirical antibiotics at the time of the BC had higher risk of mortality before 30 days (HR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.19–2.38, P = 0.004). Mortality was higher if an ineffective antimicrobial was continued by the clerking doctor (HR = 2.73, 95% CI = 1.58–4.73, P < 0.001) or at 24 h from the BC (HR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.05–3.20, P = 0.033) when compared with patients who received effective therapy throughout. Hospital-onset infections, ‘high inoculum’ infections and elevated C-reactive protein, lactate and Charlson comorbidity index were independent predictors of mortality. Effective initial antibiotics did not statistically significantly reduce length of stay in hospital (−2.98 days, 95% CI = −6.08–0.11, P = 0.058). The primary reasons for incorrect treatment were in vitro antimicrobial resistance (48.6%), initial misdiagnosis of infection source (22.7%) and non-adherence to hospital guidelines (15.7%). / Conclusions: Consecutive prescribing decisions affect mortality from Gram-negative bacteraemia

    Long-term outcome and risk factors for late mortality in Gram-negative bacteraemia: a retrospective cohort study

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    OBJECTIVES: The long-term outcomes of patients following Gram-negative bacteraemia (GNB) are poorly understood. We describe a cohort of patients with GNB over a two-year period and determine factors associated with late mortality (death between days 31 and 365 after detection of bacteraemia). METHODS: This is a single center retrospective observational cohort study of 789 patients with confirmed Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteraemias with a follow-up of one year. Multivariable survival analysis was used to determine the risk factors for late mortality in patients who survived the initial 30-day period of infection. RESULTS: Overall, one-year all-cause mortality was 36.2%, with 18.1% of patients dying within 30 days and 18.1% of patients suffering late mortality. An adverse antimicrobial resistance profile (HR 1.095 per any additional antimicrobial category, 95% CI 1.018 - 1.178, p = 0.014) and infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (HR 2.08, 95% CI 1.11 - 3.88, p = 0.022) were independent predictors of late mortality. Other significant factors included the Charlson Comorbidity Index and hospitalization length after the index blood culture. CONCLUSION: Patients with GNB have a poor long-term prognosis. Risk factors for greater mortality at one year include comorbidity, hospitalization length, the infecting organism, and its resistance profile

    Post-vaccination COVID-19: A case-control study and genomic analysis of 119 breakthrough infections in partially vaccinated individuals

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    BACKGROUND: Post-vaccination infections challenge the control of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We matched 119 cases of post-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 infection with BNT162b2 mRNA, or ChAdOx1 nCOV-19, to 476 unvaccinated patients with COVID-19 (Sept 2020-March 2021), according to age and sex. Differences in 60-day all-cause mortality, hospital admission, and hospital length of stay were evaluated. Phylogenetic, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and minority variant allele (MVA) full genome sequencing analysis was performed. RESULTS: 116/119 cases developed COVID-19 post first vaccination dose (median 14 days, IQR 9 - 24 days). Overall, 13/119 (10∙9%) cases and 158/476 (33∙2%) controls died (p<0.001), corresponding to 4∙5 number needed to treat (NNT). Multivariably, vaccination was associated with 69∙3% (95%CI 45∙8 - 82∙6) relative risk (RR) reduction in mortality. Similar results were seen in subgroup analysis for patients with infection onset ≥14 days after first vaccination (RR reduction 65∙1%, 95%CI 27∙2 - 83∙2, NNT 4∙5), and across vaccine subgroups (BNT162b2: RR reduction 66%, 95%CI 34∙9 - 82∙2, NNT 4∙7, ChAdOx1: RR reduction 78∙4%, 95%CI 30∙4 - 93∙3, NNT 4∙1). Hospital admissions (OR 0∙80, 95%CI 0∙51 - 1∙28), and length of stay (-1∙89 days, 95%CI -4∙57 - 0∙78) were lower for cases, while Ct values were higher (30∙8 versus 28∙8, p = 0.053). B.1.1.7 was the predominant lineage in cases (100/108, 92.6%) and controls (341/446, 76.5%). Genomic analysis identified one post-vaccination case harboring the E484K vaccine escape mutation (B.1.525 lineage). CONCLUSIONS: Previous vaccination reduces mortality when B.1.1.7 is the predominant lineage. No significant lineage-specific genomic changes during phylogenetic, SNP and MVA analysis were detected

    Vertical zonation of testate amoebae in the Elatia Mires, northern Greece : palaeoecological evidence for a wetland response to recent climate change or autogenic processes?

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    The Elatia Mires of northern Greece are unique ecosystems of high conservation value. The mires are climatically marginal and may be sensitive to changing hydroclimate, while northern Greece has experienced a significant increase in aridity since the late twentieth century. To investigate the impact of recent climatic change on the hydrology of the mires, the palaeoecological record was investigated from three near-surface monoliths extracted from two sites. Testate amoebae were analysed as sensitive indicators of hydrology. Results were interpreted using transfer function models to provide quantitative reconstructions of changing water table depth and pH. AMS radiocarbon dates and 210Pb suggest the peats were deposited within the last c. 50 years, but do not allow a secure chronology to be established. Results from all three profiles show a distinct shift towards a more xerophilic community particularly noted by increases in Euglypha species. Transfer function results infer a distinct lowering of water tables in this period. A hydrological response to recent climate change is a tenable hypothesis to explain this change; however other possible explanations include selective test decay, vertical zonation of living amoebae, ombrotrophication and local hydrological change. It is suggested that a peatland response to climatic change is the most probable hypothesis, showing the sensitivity of marginal peatlands to recent climatic change

    Production of Medical Radioisotopes with High Specific Activity in Photonuclear Reactions with γ\gamma Beams of High Intensity and Large Brilliance

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    We study the production of radioisotopes for nuclear medicine in (γ,xn+yp)(\gamma,x{\rm n}+y{\rm p}) photonuclear reactions or (γ,γ\gamma,\gamma') photoexcitation reactions with high flux [(1013101510^{13}-10^{15})γ\gamma/s], small diameter (100μ\sim (100 \, \mum)2)^2 and small band width (ΔE/E103104\Delta E/E \approx 10^{-3}-10^{-4}) γ\gamma beams produced by Compton back-scattering of laser light from relativistic brilliant electron beams. We compare them to (ion,xxn+y + yp) reactions with (ion=p,d,α\alpha) from particle accelerators like cyclotrons and (n,γ\gamma) or (n,f) reactions from nuclear reactors. For photonuclear reactions with a narrow γ\gamma beam the energy deposition in the target can be managed by using a stack of thin target foils or wires, hence avoiding direct stopping of the Compton and pair electrons (positrons). (γ,γ)(\gamma,\gamma') isomer production via specially selected γ\gamma cascades allows to produce high specific activity in multiple excitations, where no back-pumping of the isomer to the ground state occurs. We discuss in detail many specific radioisotopes for diagnostics and therapy applications. Photonuclear reactions with γ\gamma beams allow to produce certain radioisotopes, e.g. 47^{47}Sc, 44^{44}Ti, 67^{67}Cu, 103^{103}Pd, 117m^{117m}Sn, 169^{169}Er, 195m^{195m}Pt or 225^{225}Ac, with higher specific activity and/or more economically than with classical methods. This will open the way for completely new clinical applications of radioisotopes. For example 195m^{195m}Pt could be used to verify the patient's response to chemotherapy with platinum compounds before a complete treatment is performed. Also innovative isotopes like 47^{47}Sc, 67^{67}Cu and 225^{225}Ac could be produced for the first time in sufficient quantities for large-scale application in targeted radionuclide therapy.Comment: submitted to Appl. Phys.

    Exploring the views of infection consultants in England on a novel delinked funding model for antimicrobials: the SMASH study

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    OBJECTIVES: A novel ‘subscription-type’ funding model was launched in England in July 2022 for ceftazidime/avibactam and cefiderocol. We explored the views of infection consultants on important aspects of the delinked antimicrobial funding model. METHODS: An online survey was sent to all infection consultants in NHS acute hospitals in England. RESULTS: The response rate was 31.2% (235/753). Most consultants agreed the model is a welcome development (69.8%, 164/235), will improve treatment of drug-resistant infections (68.5%, 161/235) and will stimulate research and development of new antimicrobials (57.9%, 136/235). Consultants disagreed that the model would lead to reduced carbapenem use and reported increased use of cefiderocol post-implementation. The presence of an antimicrobial pharmacy team, requirement for preauthorization by infection specialists, antimicrobial stewardship ward rounds and education of infection specialists were considered the most effective antimicrobial stewardship interventions. Under the new model, 42.1% (99/235) of consultants would use these antimicrobials empirically, if risk factors for antimicrobial resistance were present (previous infection, colonization, treatment failure with carbapenems, ward outbreak, recent admission to a high-prevalence setting). Significantly higher insurance and diversity values were given to model antimicrobials compared with established treatments for carbapenem-resistant infections, while meropenem recorded the highest enablement value. Use of both ‘subscription-type’ model drugs for a wide range of infection sites was reported. Respondents prioritized ceftazidime/avibactam for infections by bacteria producing OXA-48 and KPC and cefiderocol for those producing MBLs and infections with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Acinetobacter spp. and Burkholderia cepacia. CONCLUSIONS: The ‘subscription-type’ model was viewed favourably by infection consultants in England

    Exploring the views of infection consultants in England on a novel delinked funding model for antimicrobials: the SMASH study

    Get PDF
    OBJECTIVES: A novel 'subscription-type' funding model was launched in England in July 2022 for ceftazidime/avibactam and cefiderocol. We explored the views of infection consultants on important aspects of the delinked antimicrobial funding model. METHODS: An online survey was sent to all infection consultants in NHS acute hospitals in England. RESULTS: The response rate was 31.2% (235/753). Most consultants agreed the model is a welcome development (69.8%, 164/235), will improve treatment of drug-resistant infections (68.5%, 161/235) and will stimulate research and development of new antimicrobials (57.9%, 136/235). Consultants disagreed that the model would lead to reduced carbapenem use and reported increased use of cefiderocol post-implementation. The presence of an antimicrobial pharmacy team, requirement for preauthorization by infection specialists, antimicrobial stewardship ward rounds and education of infection specialists were considered the most effective antimicrobial stewardship interventions. Under the new model, 42.1% (99/235) of consultants would use these antimicrobials empirically, if risk factors for antimicrobial resistance were present (previous infection, colonization, treatment failure with carbapenems, ward outbreak, recent admission to a high-prevalence setting).Significantly higher insurance and diversity values were given to model antimicrobials compared with established treatments for carbapenem-resistant infections, while meropenem recorded the highest enablement value. Use of both 'subscription-type' model drugs for a wide range of infection sites was reported. Respondents prioritized ceftazidime/avibactam for infections by bacteria producing OXA-48 and KPC and cefiderocol for those producing MBLs and infections with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Acinetobacter spp. and Burkholderia cepacia. CONCLUSIONS: The 'subscription-type' model was viewed favourably by infection consultants in England

    International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO): Outcomes of an IAEA Meeting

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    The IAEA held the International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO) in Vienna on 27-29 April 2009. The Conference dealt with the issues and requirements posed by the transition from conventional radiotherapy to advanced modern technologies, including staffing, training, treatment planning and delivery, quality assurance (QA) and the optimal use of available resources. The current role of advanced technologies (defined as 3-dimensional and/or image guided treatment with photons or particles) in current clinical practice and future scenarios were discussed
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