2,762 research outputs found

    Status of CMS and preparations for first physics

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    The status of the CMS experiment is described. After a brief review of the detector design and a short overview of the first 5 years of assembly, the focus of this presentation will be the parallel activities of completing and commissioning over the last 2 years and the readiness of CMS for the exciting prospect of first LHC operation.Comment: ICHEP08, Philadelphia, USA, July 2008. 9 page

    CMS High Level Trigger

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    SANDHILL CRANE ABUNDANCE AT GRAYS LAKE, IDAHO

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    We initiated a study on the breeding ecology of greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) in the Grays Lake basin ofIdaho in 1997. Interest in the status of crane populations at Grays Lake is high; consequently, we present preliminary information on estimated size of the population, changes since the 1970s, and potential environmental factors involved. Drewien (1973) counted an average of549 cranes in the spring and estimated 250 nesting pairs in 1970-71. Number of nesting pairs reportedly increased 33% (to 332) by 1982 in response to intensive management, then declined 40-60% by 1996 (Drewien 1997, and Homocker Wildlife Institute, personal communication). During 1998-99, spring counts averaged 736 cranes (34% increase from 1970-71). Among 44 survey units that were searched during both studies, nest densities increased in 27, decreased in 13, and remained unchanged in 4. Nest success declined from 78% in 1970-71 to 59% in 1997-99. We estimated that renesting accounted for 10% of nests in 1999. Fall staging populations were similar between the early 1970s (n = 1313) and late 1990s (n = 1370), but well below peak counts of the 1980s (often \u3e3000). Factors potentially influencing the crane populations at Grays Lake include habitat management, climate (drought), predator populations, manipulation of marsh water levels, agricultural practices, baiting, and disturbance

    NESTING ECOLOGY OF SANDHILL CRANES AT GRAYS LAKE, IDAHO

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    We examined the nesting ecology of greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) at Grays Lake, Idaho during 1997-99 to detennine the effects of nest-site characteristics and land use on crane nest success. These are preliminary results from 3 years of a 4-year study. Crane nests were located in portions of the Grays Lake basin from early May through late June each year (n = 131 in 1997; n = 131 in 1998; n = 143 in 1999). Apparent nest success varied among years (54% in 1997, 71% in 1998, and 53% in 1999; overall average of 59%). We estimate that 10% of nests found in 1999 were renests. Most crane nests were located in baltic rush/spikerush (Juncus balticus/Eleocharis sp.; 46% of nests), semi-wet meadow (19%), and bulrush/cattail (Scirpus sp./Typha sp.; 19%) plant communities; 62% of nests during early May were in:;; 12 cm of water. As indicated by plant community, water depths at nests, and nest isolation rankings, nest success tended to be higher where nests were in relatively deep water (ca. \u3e40 em) and were relatively isolated from access by mammalian predators. Nest success rates during 1997-99 were lower than those recorded in 1950-51 (90%, n = 107; Steel 1952) and 1970-71 (78%, n = 308; Drewien 1973). A variety offactors likely contribute to lower nest success, including changing predator communities over the past 30-40 years. Differences among years in our study may be affected by changing availability of alternate prey. Small mammal populations and crane nest success were the highest in 1998. Water-level management, relating to cranes and other waterbird populations, plant communities, and ecosystem function, is an emerging issue for land managers in the Grays Lake basin

    Trail Making Test performance contributes to subjective judgment of visual efficiency in older adults

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    Introduction: The determinant factors that influence self-reported quality of vision have yet to be fully elucidated. This study evaluated a range of contextual information, established psychophysical tests, and in particular, a series of cognitive tests as potentially novel determinant factors.   Materials & Methods: Community dwelling adults (aged 50+) recruited to Wave 1 of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, excluding those registered blind, participated in this study (N = 5,021). Self-reports of vision were analysed in relation to visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, ocular pathology, visual (Choice Response Time task; Trail Making Test) and global cognition. Contextual factors such as having visited an optometrist and wearing glasses were also considered. Ordinal logistic regression was used to determine univariate and multivariate associations.   Results and Discussion: Poor Trail Making Test performance (Odds ratio, OR = 1.36), visual acuity (OR = 1.72) and ocular pathology (OR = 2.25) were determinant factors for poor versus excellent vision in self-reports. Education, wealth, age, depressive symptoms and general cognitive fitness also contributed to determining self-reported vision.   Conclusions: Trail Making Test contribution to self-reports may capture higher level visual processing and should be considered when using self-reports to assess vision and its role in cognitive and functional health

    Barriers to CPR initiation and continuation during the emergency call relating to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A descriptive cohort study

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    Aim: To describe the barriers to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) initiation and continuation in emergency calls for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Methods: We analysed 295 consecutive emergency calls relating to OHCA over a four-month period (1 January ‚Äď 30 April 2021). Calls included were paramedic-confirmed, non-traumatic, non-EMS-witnessed OHCA, where the caller was with the patient. Calls were listened to in full and coded in terms of barriers to CPR initiation and continuation, and patient and caller characteristics. Results: Overall, CPR was performed in 69% of calls and, in 85% of these, callers continued performing CPR until EMS arrival. Nearly all callers (99%) experienced barriers to CPR initiation and/or continuation during the call. The barriers identified were classified into eight categories: reluc tance, appropriateness, emotion, bystander physical ability, patient access, leaving the scene, communication failure, caller actions and call-taker instructions. Of these, bystander physical ability was the most prevalent barrier to both CPR initiation and continuation, occurring in 191 (65%) calls, followed by communication failure which occurred in 160 (54%) calls. Callers stopping or interrupting CPR performance due to being fatigued was lower than expected (n = 54, 26% of callers who performed CPR). Barriers to CPR initiation that related to bystander physical ability, caller actions, communication failure, emotion, leaving the scene, patient access, procedural barriers, and reluctance were mostly overcome by the caller (i.e., CPR was performed). Conclusion: Barriers to CPR initiation and continuation were commonly experienced by callers, however they were frequently overcome. Future research should investigate the strategies that were successful

    A Letter of Intent to Install a milli-charged Particle Detector at LHC P5

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    In this LOI we propose a dedicated experiment that would detect "milli-charged" particles produced by pp collisions at LHC Point 5. The experiment would be installed during LS2 in the vestigial drainage gallery above UXC and would not interfere with CMS operations. With 300 fb‚ąí1^{-1} of integrated luminosity, sensitivity to a particle with charge O(10‚ąí3)¬†e\mathcal{O}(10^{-3})~e can be achieved for masses of O(1)\mathcal{O}(1) GeV, and charge O(10‚ąí2)¬†e\mathcal{O}(10^{-2})~e for masses of O(10)\mathcal{O}(10) GeV, greatly extending the parameter space explored for particles with small charge and masses above 100 MeV.Comment: 19 pages, 7 figure

    Stochastic Descriptors in an SIR Epidemic Model for Heterogeneous Individuals in Small Networks

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    We continue here the work initiated in [13], and analyse an SIR epidemic model for the spread of an epidemic among the members of a small population of N individuals, de ned in terms of a continuous-time Markov chain X. We propose a structure by levels and sub-levels of the state space of the process X, and present two di erent orders, Orders A and B, for states within each sub-level, which are related to a matrix and a scalar formalism, respectively, when developing our analysis. Stochastic descriptors regarding the length and size of an outbreak, the maximum number of individuals simultaneously infected during an outbreak, the fate of a particular individual within the population, and the number of secondary cases caused by a certain individual until he recovers, are deeply analysed. Our approach is illustrated by carrying out a set of numerical results regarding the spread of the nosocomial pathogen Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus among the patients within an intensive care unit. In this application, our interest is in analysing the e ectiveness of control strategies (the isolation of the patient initiating the outbreak and the proper room con guration of the intensive care unit) that intrinsically introduce heterogeneities among the members of the population

    The MATHUSLA Test Stand

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    The rate of muons from LHC pppp collisions reaching the surface above the ATLAS interaction point is measured and compared with expected rates from decays of WW and ZZ bosons and bb- and cc-quark jets. In addition, data collected during periods without beams circulating in the LHC provide a measurement of the background from cosmic ray inelastic backscattering that is compared to simulation predictions. Data were recorded during 2018 in a 2.5 √ó\times 2.5 √ó\times 6.5~m3\rm{m}^3 active volume MATHUSLA test stand detector unit consisting of two scintillator planes, one at the top and one at the bottom, which defined the trigger, and six layers of RPCs between them, grouped into three (x,y)(x,y)-measuring layers separated by 1.74 m from each other. Triggers selecting both upward-going tracks and downward-going tracks were used.Comment: 18 pages, 11 figures, 1 tabl
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