192 research outputs found

    Draft genome sequence of <i>Burkholderia sordidicola</i> S170, a potential plant growth promoter isolated from coniferous forest soil in the Czech Republic

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    Burkholderia species are key players in the accumulation of carbon from cellulose decomposition in coniferous forest ecosystems. We report here the draft genome of Burkholderia sordidicola strain S170, containing features associated with known genes involved in plant growth promotion, the biological control of plant diseases, and green remediation technologies

    Potential of cometabolic transformation of polysaccharides and lignin in lignocellulose by soil Actinobacteria

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    While it is known that several Actinobacteria produce enzymes that decompose polysaccharides or phenolic compounds in dead plant biomass, the occurrence of these traits in the environment remains largely unclear. The aim of this work was to screen isolated actinobacterial strains to explore their ability to produce extracellular enzymes that participate in the degradation of polysaccharides and their ability to cometabolically transform phenolic compounds of various complexities. Actinobacterial strains were isolated from meadow and forest soils and screened for their ability to grow on lignocellulose. The potential to transform 14C-labelled phenolic substrates (dehydrogenation polymer (DHP), lignin and catechol) and to produce a range of extracellular, hydrolytic enzymes was investigated in three strains of Streptomyces spp. that possessed high lignocellulose degrading activity. Isolated strains showed high variation in their ability to produce cellulose- and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes and were able to mineralise up to 1.1% and to solubilise up to 4% of poplar lignin and to mineralise up to 11.4% and to solubilise up to 64% of catechol, while only minimal mineralisation of DHP was observed. The results confirm the potential importance of Actinobacteria in lignocellulose degradation, although it is likely that the decomposition of biopolymers is limited to strains that represent only a minor portion of the entire community, while the range of simple, carbon-containing compounds that serve as sources for actinobacterial growth is relatively wide.Peer reviewe

    Temporal turnover of the soil microbiome composition is guild-specific

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    Although spatial and temporal variation are both important components structuring microbial communities, the exact quantification of temporal turnover rates of fungi and bacteria has not been performed to date. In this study, we utilised repeated resampling of bacterial and fungal communities at specific locations across multiple years to describe their patterns and rates of temporal turnover. Our results show that microbial communities undergo temporal change at a rate of 0.010-0.025 per year (in units of Sorensen similarity), and the change in soil is slightly faster in fungi than in bacteria, with bacterial communities changing more rapidly in litter than soil. Importantly, temporal development differs across fungal guilds and bacterial phyla with different ecologies. While some microbial guilds show consistent responses across regional locations, others show site-specific development with weak general patterns. These results indicate that guild-level resolution is important for understanding microbial community assembly, dynamics and responses to environmental factors.Peer reviewe

    Fungal Communities Are Important Determinants of Bacterial Community Composition in Deadwood

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    Fungal-bacterial interactions play a key role in the functioning of many ecosystems. Thus, understanding their interactive dynamics is of central importance for gaining predictive knowledge on ecosystem functioning. However, it is challenging to disentangle the mechanisms behind species associations from observed co occurrence patterns, and little is known about the directionality of such interactions. Here, we applied joint species distribution modeling to high-throughput sequencing data on co-occurring fungal and bacterial communities in deadwood to ask whether fungal and bacterial co-occurrences result from shared habitat use (i.e., deadwood's properties) or whether there are fungal-bacterial interactive associations after habitat characteristics are taken into account. Moreover, we tested the hypothesis that the interactions are mainly modulated through fungal communities influencing bacterial communities. For that, we quantified how much the predictive power of the joint species distribution models for bacterial and fungal community improved when accounting for the other community. Our results show that fungi and bacteria form tight association networks (i.e., some species pairs co-occur more frequently and other species pairs co-occur less frequently than expected by chance) in deadwood that include common (or opposite) responses to the environment as well as (potentially) biotic interactions. Additionally, we show that information about the fungal occurrences and abundances increased the power to predict the bacterial abundances substantially, whereas information about the bacterial occurrences and abundances increased the power to predict the fungal abundances much less. Our results suggest that fungal communities may mainly affect bacteria in deadwood. IMPORTANCE Understanding the interactive dynamics between fungal and bacterial communities is important to gain predictive knowledge on ecosystem functioning. However, little is known about the mechanisms behind fungal-bacterial associations and the directionality of species interactions. Applying joint species distribution modeling to high-throughput sequencing data on co-occurring fungal-bacterial communities in deadwood, we found evidence that nonrandom fungal-bacterial associations derive from shared habitat use as well as (potentially) biotic interactions. Importantly, the combination of cross-validations and conditional cross-validations helped us to answer the question about the directionality of the biotic interactions, providing evidence that suggests that fungal communities may mainly affect bacteria in deadwood. Our modeling approach may help gain insight into the directionality of interactions between different components of the microbiome in other environments.Peer reviewe

    Tree species identity alters decomposition of understory litter and associated microbial communities : a case study

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    Investigations on how tree species modify decomposition of understory litter have rarely been conducted, although potentially having impacts on soil carbon stocks and stability. The aim of our study was to disentangle the effects different tree species (alder, spruce, oak, and willow) exert on litter decomposition by comparing decomposition patterns and microbial measures (phospholipid fatty acids and microbial DNA) of both tree and understory (Calamagrostis epigejos) litter exposed at the respective tree species stands of a common garden experiment. An initially uniform mass loss of understory litter exposed at the stands suggests that inherent litter quality (assessed by C:N ratios and lignin content) was the major driver in early decomposition. However, in later stages of our experiment, decomposition of understory litter began to differ among the stands, suggesting a delayed tree species effect. Here, differences in microbial community composition caused by tree species identity (e.g., through varying N supply or phenolics leached from low-quality litter) were likely the major determinants affecting the decomposition of understory litter. However, in these advanced decomposition stages, tree species identity only partly altered microbial communities associated with understory litter. These results indicate that the development of microbial communities on understory litter (and its decay) is likely a combined result of inherent chemical composition and tree species identity.Peer reviewe

    Specialisation events of fungal metacommunities exposed to a persistent organic pollutant are suggestive of augmented pathogenic potential

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    Background: The impacts of man-made chemicals, in particular of persistent organic pollutants, are multifactorial as they may affect the integrity of ecosystems, alter biodiversity and have undesirable effects on many organisms. We have previously demonstrated that the belowground mycobiota of forest soils acts as a buffer against the biocide pollutant pentachlorophenol. However, the trade-offs made by mycobiota to mitigate this pollutant remain cryptic. Results: Herein, we demonstrate using a culture-dependent approach that exposure to pentachlorophenol led to alterations in the composition and functioning of the metacommunity, many of which were not fully alleviated when most of the biocide was degraded. Proteomic and physiological analyses showed that the carbon and nitrogen metabolisms were particularly affected. This dysregulation is possibly linked to the higher pathogenic potential of the metacommunity following exposure to the biocide, supported by the secretion of proteins related to pathogenicity and reduced susceptibility to a fungicide. Our findings provide additional evidence for the silent risks of environmental pollution, particularly as it may favour the development of pathogenic trade-offs in fungi, which may impose serious threats to animals and plant hosts

    Ecological Divergence Within the Enterobacterial Genus Sodalis: From Insect Symbionts to Inhabitants of Decomposing Deadwood

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    The bacterial genus Sodalis is represented by insect endosymbionts as well as free-living species. While the former have been studied frequently, the distribution of the latter is not yet clear. Here, we present a description of a free-living strain, Sodalis ligni sp. nov., originating from decomposing deadwood. The favored occurrence of S. ligni in deadwood is confirmed by both 16S rRNA gene distribution and metagenome data. Pangenome analysis of available Sodalis genomes shows at least three groups within the Sodalis genus: deadwood-associated strains, tsetse fly endosymbionts and endosymbionts of other insects. This differentiation is consistent in terms of the gene frequency level, genome similarity and carbohydrate-active enzyme composition of the genomes. Deadwood-associated strains contain genes for active decomposition of biopolymers of plant and fungal origin and can utilize more diverse carbon sources than their symbiotic relatives. Deadwood-associated strains, but not other Sodalis strains, have the genetic potential to fix N2, and the corresponding genes are expressed in deadwood. Nitrogenase genes are located within the genomes of Sodalis, including S. ligni, at multiple loci represented by more gene variants. We show decomposing wood to be a previously undescribed habitat of the genus Sodalis that appears to show striking ecological divergence

    Microbial communities in local and transplanted soils along a latitudinal gradient

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    Factors shaping community structure of soil microbiota have been intensively studied; however, the pattern in community composition and structure of soil microbiota at large geographical scales and factors regulating its metabolic activity remains poorly understood. Here, we used a field transplantation experiments to investigate the effects of substrate and climatic conditions on basal soil respiration, microbial biomass C and diversity of soil microbiota by comparing local and transplanted soils along a latitudinal gradient. Soil samples collected in April 2008 at donor site (Sokolov, Czech Republic) in Central Europe were gamma-ray sterilized and transplanted to receptor sites in Europe and the USA in May and early June 2008. Soil samples were taken in June 2009 after one year of exposure and immediately prepared for laboratory analysis. Basal soil respiration in local soils increased from 22 to 42 mg CO2-C kg-1 h-1 with latitude while basal soil respiration in transplanted soils decreased with latitude from 32 to 19 mg CO2-C kg-1 h-1. The microbial biomass C in both transplanted and local soils decreased with latitude. Content of fungal and bacterial phospholipid fatty acids increased nearly twice with latitude in local soils. Shannon diversity index of fungal community decreased from 2.5 to 1.2 along the latitudinal gradient in transplanted soils while local soils increased from 0.9 to 2.4 with latitude. Based on our results, microbial activity is driven mainly by changes of the soil substrate along latitudinal and climatic gradients while microbial biomass is driven more by global climatic factors itself. The diversity of soil microbial communities is mostly affected by latitudinal and climatic factors while community structure is mostly shaped by substrate quality
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