92 research outputs found

    Highly efficient, dual state emission from an organic semiconductor

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    We report highly efficient, simultaneous fluorescence and phosphorescence (74% yield) at room temperature from a single molecule ensemble of (BzP)PB dispersed into a polymer host. The slow phosphorescence (208 ms lifetime) is very efficient (50%) at room temperature and only possible because the non-radiative rate for the triplet state is extremely low. The ability of an organic molecule to function as an efficient dual state emitter at room temperature is unusual and opens new fields of applications including the use as broadband down-conversion emitters, optical sensors and attenuators, exciton probes, and spin-independent intermediates for F\"orster resonant energy transfer

    Plexcitons: Dirac points and topological modes

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    Plexcitons are polaritonic modes that result from the strong coupling between excitons and plasmons. We consider plexcitons emerging from the interaction of excitons in an organic molecular layer with surface plasmons in a metallic film. We predict the emergence of Dirac cones in the two-dimensional bandstructure of plexcitons due to the inherent alignment of the excitonic transitions in the organic layer. These Dirac cones may open up in energy by simultaneously interfacing the metal with a magneto-optical layer and subjecting the whole system to a perpendicular magnetic field. The resulting energy gap becomes populated with topologically protected one-way modes which travel at the interface of this plexcitonic system. Our theoretical proposal suggests that plexcitons are a convenient and simple platform for the exploration of exotic phases of matter as well as of novel ways to direct energy flow at the nanoscale

    Designing a Broadband Pump for High-Quality Micro-Lasers via Modified Net Radiation Method

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    High-quality micro-lasers are key ingredients in non-linear optics, communication, sensing and low-threshold solar-pumped lasers. However, such micro-lasers exhibit negligible absorption of free-space broadband pump light. Recently, this limitation was lifted by cascade energy transfer, in which the absorption and quality factor are modulated with wavelength, enabling non-resonant pumping of high-quality micro-lasers and solar-pumped laser to operate at record low solar concentration. Here, we present a generic theoretical framework for modeling the absorption, emission and energy transfer of incoherent radiation between cascade sensitizer and laser gain media. Our model is based on linear equations of the modified net radiation method and is therefore robust, fast converging and has low complexity. We apply this formalism to compute the optimal parameters of low-threshold solar-pumped lasers. It is revealed that the interplay between the absorption and self-absorption of such lasers defines the optimal pump absorption below the maximal value, which is in contrast to conventional lasers for which full pump absorption is desired. Numerical results are compared to experimental data on a sensitized Nd[superscript 3+]:YAG cavity, and quantitative agreement with theoretical models is found. Our work modularizes the gain and sensitizing components and paves the way for the optimal design of broadband-pumped high-quality micro-lasers and efficient solar-pumped lasers.Russell Berrie Nanotechnology InstituteTechnion, Israel Institute of Technology. Grand Technion Energy ProgramIsrael Strategic Alternative Energy Foundatio

    Characterization of Protein Hubs by Inferring Interacting Motifs from Protein Interactions

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    The characterization of protein interactions is essential for understanding biological systems. While genome-scale methods are available for identifying interacting proteins, they do not pinpoint the interacting motifs (e.g., a domain, sequence segments, a binding site, or a set of residues). Here, we develop and apply a method for delineating the interacting motifs of hub proteins (i.e., highly connected proteins). The method relies on the observation that proteins with common interaction partners tend to interact with these partners through a common interacting motif. The sole input for the method are binary protein interactions; neither sequence nor structure information is needed. The approach is evaluated by comparing the inferred interacting motifs with domain families defined for 368 proteins in the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP). The positive predictive value of the method for detecting proteins with common SCOP families is 75% at sensitivity of 10%. Most of the inferred interacting motifs were significantly associated with sequence patterns, which could be responsible for the common interactions. We find that yeast hubs with multiple interacting motifs are more likely to be essential than hubs with one or two interacting motifs, thus rationalizing the previously observed correlation between essentiality and the number of interacting partners of a protein. We also find that yeast hubs with multiple interacting motifs evolve slower than the average protein, contrary to the hubs with one or two interacting motifs. The proposed method will help us discover unknown interacting motifs and provide biological insights about protein hubs and their roles in interaction networks

    Shorter Exciton Lifetimes via an External Heavy-Atom Effect: Alleviating the Effects of Bimolecular Processes in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

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    Multiexcited‐state phenomena are believed to be the root cause of two exigent challenges in organic light‐emitting diodes; namely, efficiency roll‐off and degradation. The development of novel strategies to reduce exciton densities under heavy load is therefore highly desirable. Here, it is shown that triplet exciton lifetimes of thermally activated delayed‐fluorescence‐emitter molecules can be manipulated in the solid state by exploiting intermolecular interactions. The external heavy‐atom effect of brominated host molecules leads to increased spin–orbit coupling, which in turn enhances intersystem crossing rates in the guest molecule. Wave function overlap between the host and the guest is confirmed by combined molecular dynamics and density functional theory calculations. Shorter triplet exciton lifetimes are observed, while high photoluminescence quantum yields and essentially unaltered emission spectra are maintained. A change in the intersystem crossing rate ratio due to increased dielectric constants leads to almost 50% lower triplet exciton densities in the emissive layer in the steady state and results in an improved onset of the photoluminescence quantum yield roll‐off at high excitation densities. Efficient organic light‐emitting diodes with better roll‐off behavior based on these novel hosts are fabricated, demonstrating the suitability of this concept for real‐world applications.United States. Department of Energy (Grant DE‐FG02‐07ER46474

    Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Materials Based on Homoconjugation Effect of Donor–Acceptor Triptycenes

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    Donor–acceptor triptycences, TPA-QNX(CN)2 and TPA-PRZ(CN)2, were synthesized and their emissive properties were studied. They exhibited a blue-green fluorescence with emission lifetimes on the order of a microsecond in cyclohexane at room temperature. The long lifetime emission is quenched by O[subscript 2] and is attributed to thermally activated delayed florescence (TADF). Unimolecular TADF is made possible by the separation and weak coupling due to homoconjugation of the HOMO and LUMO on different arms of the three-dimensional donor–acceptor triptycene. Organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) were fabricated using TPA-QNX(CN)2 and TPA-PRZ(CN)2 as emitters which displayed electroluminescence with efficiencies as high as 9.4% EQE.Samsung (Firm)Japan Society for the Promotion of Scienc

    Red Phosphorescence from Benzo[2,1,3]thiadiazoles at Room Temperature

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    We describe the red phosphorescence exhibited by a class of structurally simple benzo[2,1,3]thiadiazoles at room temperature. The photophysical properties of these molecules in deoxygenated cyclohexane, including their absorption spectra, steady-state photoluminescence and excitation spectra, and phosphorescence lifetimes, are presented. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations were carried out to better understand the electronic excited states of these benzo[2,1,3]thiadiazoles and why they are capable of phosphorescence.National Science Foundation (U.S.) (1122374)United States. Dept. of Energy. Office of Basic Energy Sciences (DE-FG02-07ER46474

    Singlet fission efficiency in tetracene-based organic solar cells

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    Singlet exciton fission splits one singlet exciton into two triplet excitons. Using a joint analysis of photocurrent and fluorescence modulation under a magnetic field, we determine that the triplet yield within optimized tetracene organic photovoltaic devices is 153% ± 5% for a tetracene film thickness of 20 nm. The corresponding internal quantum efficiency is 127% ± 18%. These results are used to prove the effectiveness of a simplified triplet yield measurement that relies only on the magnetic field modulation of fluorescence. Despite its relatively slow rate of singlet fission, the measured triplet yields confirm that tetracene is presently the best candidate for use with silicon solar cells.United States. Dept. of Energy. Office of Basic Energy Sciences (Award DE-SC0001088)National Science Foundation (U.S.). Graduate Research Fellowship (Grant 1122374

    Turbocharged molecular discovery of OLED emitters: from high-throughput quantum simulation to highly efficient TADF devices

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    Discovering new OLED emitters requires many experiments to synthesize candidates and test performance in devices. Large scale computer simulation can greatly speed this search process but the problem remains challenging enough that brute force application of massive computing power is not enough to successfully identify novel structures. We report a successful High Throughput Virtual Screening study that leveraged a range of methods to optimize the search process. The generation of candidate structures was constrained to contain combinatorial explosion. Simulations were tuned to the specific problem and calibrated with experimental results. Experimentalists and theorists actively collaborated such that experimental feedback was regularly utilized to update and shape the computational search. Supervised machine learning methods prioritized candidate structures prior to quantum chemistry simulation to prevent wasting compute on likely poor performers. With this combination of techniques, each multiplying the strength of the search, this effort managed to navigate an area of molecular space and identify hundreds of promising OLED candidate structures. An experimentally validated selection of this set shows emitters with external quantum efficiencies as high as 22%

    Triplet-sensitization by lead halide perovskite thin films for near-infrared-to-visible upconversion

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    Lead halide-based perovskite thin films have attracted great attention due to the explosive increase in perovskite solar cell efficiencies. The same optoelectronic properties that make perovskites ideal absorber materials in solar cells are also beneficial in other light-harvesting applications and make them prime candidates as triplet sensitizers in upconversion via triplet-triplet annihilation in rubrene. In this contribution, we take advantage of long carrier lifetimes and carrier diffusion lengths in perovskite thin films, their high absorption cross sections throughout the visible spectrum, as well as the strong spin-orbit coupling owing to the abundance of heavy atoms to sensitize the upconverter rubrene. Employing bulk perovskite thin films as the absorber layer and spin-mixer in inorganic/organic heterojunction upconversion devices allows us to forego the additional tunneling barrier owing from the passivating ligands required for colloidal sensitizers. Our bilayer device exhibits an upconversion efficiency in excess of 3% under 785 nm illumination
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