85 research outputs found

    Business angels and early stage decision making criteria: empirical evidence from an emerging market

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    How do business angels assess a prospective entrepreneurial firm when they make an investment decision? This article examines a central question that informal venture capitalists have been struggling with for decades: What early stage decision making criteria do investors define and apply to reduce the volume of potential deals to a more manageable size? Based on semi-structured interviews with business angels in an emerging market, we show that investors are focused on the industry structure and product features, on the other side, our results also suggest a very strong support for the personality of the entrepreneur and management team. More specifically, entrepreneur trustworthiness is an essential element affecting an investorÔÇÖs decision to close a deal. Business angels set requirements in terms of the entrepreneurÔÇÖs equity stake in the start-up and monitoring tools to prevent the failure of investee firms. Our findings suggest that if there are warning signs that the project is in an existential crisis, most of the investors will reject their participation. We believe that our empirical results support both researchers and practitioners to establish a better understanding between the well-developed financial theories and the underresearched informal venture capital market in a Central and Eastern European country

    Effect of CSR implementation and crisis events in business on the financial management of SMEs

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    The financial management of a business is an integral part of strategic management. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are vulnerable to the presence of crisis events in the business environment. In this context, senior managers and owners need to react promptly to emerging changes in a given business segment. The aim of the article is to quantify the effect of crisis events in business and firmÔÇÖs CSR implementation in business on the financial performance in the SMEs. The empirical research incorporated 1,090 SMEs in the business environment of four Central European countries. The research hypotheses were evaluated using structural equation modelling. The empirical findings confirmed the positive impact of CSR implementation in the enterprise on its financial management. The research results did not confirm the negative effects of crisis events in business on the financial management. Crisis phenomena have direct effects on the sustainability of the enterprise; the organizational activities of the enterprise; the functioning of the enterprise in the market and the management of the enterprise. The findings are used as a basis for the preparation of strategic projects of national and international policies helping to cope with crisis phenomena in the business environment of the SME segment

    Global energy transition: From the main determinants to economic challenges

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    Dynamic global energy transition has been accelerating for the last decade. Interestingly, the energy transition is multidimensional and concerns both the dimensions of technique/ technology and the economic, social, institu-tional, and legal spheres

    Brand valuation: an innovative approach based on conversion ratios

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    We present a novel brand valuation method based on conversion ratios. The proposed approach uses brand-related parameters, which are usually accessible, however, the established brand valuation methods have not yet used them. These key parameters include the ability to acquire new customers and retain current customers. We argue that such parameters can be reflected through the cost of reaching new customers and retaining current customers. The method proposed relies on observable inputs, hence, it specifically addresses the limitation of the brand valuation methods defined so far. The method is based on the cost savings reached by the investors who acquire the brand. It can be applied in situations in which brand users reach average to below average results not admitting the application of incomebased approaches. Furthermore, the method is a suitable analytical tool supporting financial executives, analysts, and consultants while identifying contributions made by the brand. We test the concept on a model company within a case study. The method can be also a contribution in terms of the calibration and refinement of the existing approaches and will support both researchers and practitioners to improve the understanding between the already accepted brand valuation methods and novel perspectives on the issue

    Valuation of embedded options in non-marketable callable bonds: a new numerical approach

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    The issue of how to price options embedded in callable bonds has attracted a lot of interest over the years. The usual bond valuation methods rely on yield curves, risk premium, and other parameters to estimate interest rates used in discounted cash flow calculations. The option to retire the bond is, however, neglected in the standard pricing models, causing a systematic overvaluation of callable bonds. In the event of a decline in interest rates, investors are exposed to the risk of a lower return on investment than indicated by the yield to maturity. We propose a novel approach to valuing the risk that the issuer will use the right to buy back the bond at a specific call price. While prior models are focused on valuing marketable callable bonds, we deliver a unique approach to valuing bonds with an embedded European option (or a multiple option) that are traded solely through private transactions. These can typically be characterized by the lack of historical records on transaction prices. The modular character of calculation we propose allows us to take into account additional information, such as probable behaviour of the issuer, available opportunities for achieving alternative earnings or different estimates in terms of interest rate development

    Blockchain Technology and Smart Contracts in Decentralized Governance Systems

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    The aim of our systematic review was to inspect the recently published literature on decentralized governance systems and integrate the insights it articulates on blockchain technology and smart contracts by employing Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Throughout January and May 2022, a quantitative literature review of ProQuest, Scopus, and the Web of Science databases was carried out, with search terms including “city” + “blockchain technology”, “smart contracts”, and “decentralized governance systems”. As the analyzed research studies were published between 2016 and 2022, only 371 sources satisfied the eligibility criteria. A Shiny app was harnessed for the PRISMA flow diagram to include evidence-based acquired and handled data. Analyzing the most recent and relevant sources and leveraging screening and quality assessment tools such as AMSTAR, Dedoose, Distiller SR, ROBIS, and SRDR, we integrated the core outcomes and robust correlations related to smart urban governance. As data visualization tools, for initial bibliometric mapping dimensions were harnessed, together with layout algorithms provided by VOSviewer. Future research should investigate smart contract governance of blockchain applications and infrastructure using decision-making tools and spatial cognition algorithms

    Changes in the Occupational Structure of the Labour Market in Poland in 1995-2016

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    Within last few years Polish labour market has undergone significant structural changes, where the main labour markets policy challenges moved from the problem of fighting unemployment to the problem of labour market shortages and the issue of increasing allocation effectiveness of labour force. This situation creates the need for building new and updating the existing quantitative diagnostic tools that can be useful for providing labour market policy guidelines. As a result, the main objective of the article is to conduct re-specification of the occupational model for major occupational groups with a high adjustment to empirical data and good statistical properties, which could be applied for forecasting purposes. To fulfil the aim of the article the causal model econometric model for major occupational groups in Poland in the years 1995-2016 was re-specified. From the forecasting perspective the obtained model is currently the most updated tool with respect to the occupational structure in Polish labour market, which in the same time is characterised with sufficient statistical quality. From the economic perspective the research confirms the process of modernisation of Polish economy and the structural changes that are conducive to the tendencies observed in the EU-27 countries

    The impact of money on output in Czech Republic and Romania

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    The problem of relationship between output and money has become again a subject of special interests of economists after the most recent global financial crisis and monetary stabilization policies applied by central banks of almost all developed economies. In this context, the main aim of this paper is to assess the relation between GDP and the most important monetary variables in two countries: Romania and Czech Republic over the period of 1995:Q1 ÔÇô 2015:Q4. The choice of these economies was deliberate. The selected countries are different from the viewpoint of rate and results of transformation from the centrally planned to market economy, which have influenced their current economic environment stability. Czech Republic is currently classified as middle or even developed country, whereas Romania is still considered as a developing economy. Thus, differences between these two countries make them interesting in the case of comparative studies. In the empirical part of our research the vector error correction models (VECM) were applied. The main findings of the article are the following: in Romania, there is a short-run causality from money supply (M3) to GDP and a long-run relationship between GDP, internal credit and M3. According to Granger causality test, the rate of M3 in Romania was a cause for economic. In Czech Republic, there is a short-run causality from M3 to GDP and a long-run causality between GDP, internal credit and M3. Thus, the results contradict the money neutrality hypothesis in post-transformation Central European economies
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