17 research outputs found

    Antitumor Activity of Ficus deltoidea Extract on Oral Cancer: An In Vivo Study

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    Background. The aim of this study is to evaluate the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities of Ficus deltoidea (FD) in an animal model induced for oral cancer using 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). Methods. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomized into six groups (n = 7 per group): Group 1 (untreated group); Group 2 (control cancer group) received 4NQO only for 8 weeks in their drinking water; Groups 3 and 4 (chemopreventive) received 4NQO for 8 weeks and were simultaneously treated with FD extract at 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively, by oral gavage; Groups 5 and 6 (chemotherapeutic) received 4NQO for 8 weeks followed by the administration of FD extract at 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively, for another 10 weeks. The incidence of oral cancer was microscopically evaluated. Moreover, immunohistochemical expression was analysed in tongue specimens using an image analyser computer system, while the RT2 profiler PCR array method was employed for gene expression analysis. Results. The results of the present study showed a beneficial regression effect of the FD extract on tumor progression. The FD extract significantly reduced the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) from 100% to 14.3% in the high-dose groups. The immunohistochemical analysis showed that the FD extract had significantly decreased the expression of the key tumor marker cyclin D1 and had significantly increased the expression of the β-catenin and e-cadherin antibodies that are associated with enhanced cellular adhesion. Based on the gene expression analysis, FD extract had reduced the expression of the TWIST1 and RAC1 genes associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and had significantly downregulated the COX-2 and EGFR genes associated with cancer angiogenesis, metastasis, and chemoresistance. Our data suggest that the FD extract exerts chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities in an animal model induced for oral cancer using 4NQO, thus having the potential to be developed as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents

    The Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects of Capsaicin on an Oral Squamous Cancer Cell Line of Asian Origin, ORL-48

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    Background and Objectives: The antitumor activities of capsaicin on various types of cancer cell lines have been reported but the effect of capsaicin on oral cancer, which is prevalent among Asians, are very limited. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of capsaicin on ORL-48, an oral cancer cell line of Asian origin. Materials and Methods: Morphological changes of the ORL-48 cells treated with capsaicin were analyzed using fluorescence microscopy. The apoptotic-inducing activity of capsaicin was further confirmed by Annexin V-Fluorescein isothiocyanate/Propidium iodide (V-FITC/PI) staining using flow cytometry. In order to establish the pathway of apoptosis triggered by the compound on ORL-48 cells, caspase activity was determined and the mitochondrial pathway was verified by mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) assay. Cell cycle analysis was also performed to identify the cell cycle phase of ORL-48 cells being inhibited by the capsaicin compound. Results: Fluorescence microscopy exhibited the presence of apoptotic features in capsaicin-treated ORL-48 cells. Apoptosis of capsaicin-treated ORL-48 cells revealed disruption of the mitochondrial-membrane potential, activation of caspase-3,-7 and-9 through an intrinsic apoptotic pathway and subsequently, apoptotic DNA fragmentation. The cell cycle arrest occurred in the G1-phase, confirming antiproliferative effect of capsaicin in a time-dependent manner. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that capsaicin is cytotoxic against ORL-48 cells and induces apoptosis in ORL-48 cells possibly through mitochondria mediated intrinsic pathway resulting in cell cycle arrest. © 2019 by the authors

    Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of Dracaena cinnabari resin methanol extract in rats

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    Abstract Background Dracaena cinnabari (DC) is a perennial tree that located on the Southern coast of Yemen native to the Socotra Island. This tree produces a deep red resin known as the Dragon’s blood, the Twobrother’s Blood or Damm Alakhwain. The current study performed to evaluate the safety of the DC resin methanol extract after a single or 28 consecutive daily oral administrations. Methods In assessing the safety of DC resin methanol extract, acute and sub-acute oral toxicity tests performed following OECD guidelines 423 and 407, respectively, with slight modifications. In acute oral toxicity test, DC resin methanol extract administered to female Sprague Dawley rats by oral gavage at a single dose of 300 and 2000 mg/kg body weight. Rats observed for toxic signs for 14 days. In sub-acute oral toxicity test, DC resin methanol extract administered to the rats by oral gavage at 500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg body weight daily up to 28 days to male and female Spradgue Dawley rats. The control and high dose in satellite groups were also maintained and handled as the previous groups to determine the late onset toxicity of DC resin methanol extract. At the end of each test, hematological and biochemical analysis of the collected blood were performed as well as gross and microscopic pathology. Results In acute oral toxicity, no treatment-related death or toxic signs were observed. It revealed that the DC resin methanol extract could be well tolerated up to the dose 2000 mg/kg body weight and could be classified as Category 5. The sub-acute test observations indicated that there are no treatment-related changes up to the high dose level compared to the control. Food consumption, body weight, organ weight, hematological parameters, biochemical parameters and histopathological examination (liver, kidney, heart, spleen and lung) revealed no abnormalities. Water intake was significantly higher in the DC resin methanol extract treated groups compared to the control. Conclusion This study demonstrates tolerability of DC resin methanol extract administered daily for 28 days up to 1500 mg/kg dose

    Inverse changes in plasma tetranectin and titin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a potential predictor of acute myocardial infarction?

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    An early intervention using biomarkers to predict acute myocardial infarction (AMI) will effectively reduce global heart attack incidence, particularly among high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study attempted to identify potential biomarkers by detecting changes in the levels of plasma proteins in T2DM patients following onset of AMI in comparison with those without AMI. Volunteer T2DM patients without AMI (control; n=10) and T2DM patients with AMI (n=10) were recruited. Plasma samples from these patients were evaluated via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) to screen for proteins with level changes between the two groups. The abundance of spots on gel images was analyzed using Progenesis SameSpots and subjected to false discovery rate (FDR) analysis. Protein spots with statistically significant changes of at least 1.5 fold were selected for mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Due to strong cardiac connections, tetranectin and titin were evaluated by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The adjusted P-values and fold changes between the two groups resulted in identification of 34 protein spots with significantly altered abundance. Upon MS analysis, 17 plasma proteins were identified: tetranectin, titin, clusterin, haptoglobin, myosin-13, zinc fnger protein 445, DNA repair protein RAD50, serum albumin, apolipoprotein A-IV, caspase-6, aminoacyl tRNA synthase complex-interacting multifunctional protein 1, serotransferrin, retinol-binding protein 4, transthyretin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, apolipoprotein A-I and serum amyloid A. Comparable patterns of changes in tetranectin and titin between the control and AMI groups were confirmed using ELISA. In summary, tetranectin and titin in plasma appeared to be closely associated with the onset of AMI among T2DM patients and can be used as potential biomarkers for prediction of a cardiac event, though this requires validation in a prospective cohort study

    Saliva Sampling of Alcoholic Participants using Three Saliva Collection Methods

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    The potential of using saliva as a diagnostic fluid is well documented. The aim of this study was to assess the quality and quantity of saliva DNA of alcoholic and non-alcoholic participants using three saliva collection methods; DNA-SalTM (Oasis Diagnostics, USA), Oragene-DNA (DNA Genotek Inc, Ontario, Canada) and whole saliva collection method. Saliva DNA of non-alcoholic (n=30) and alcoholic participants (n=10) age between 25 and 35 years was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using spectrophotometry. Saliva DNA quantity was the highest for all participants when using the DNA-Sal TM saliva collection kit (p<0.05). The use of a mechanical scraper provided only in the DNA-Sal TM kit may have contributed to the highest DNA yield for all participants. The quantity of saliva DNA when assessed using spectrophotometer was found to be significantly lower (p<0.05) for the alcoholic (16±3.57 ng/μL) than non-alcoholic participants (19.92±6.18 ng/μL). To determine the integrity of the DNA samples, PCR amplification of the Alcohol Dehydrogenase gene, ADH1B was carried out and the PCR was found to be successful. For all participants, the DNA quality of the saliva collected using the three saliva collection methods was found to be in the acceptable range considered as pure DNA. The DNA quality and quantity of saliva collected from the three saliva collection methods were considered suitable for research purposes

    Dentinal tubules occluded by bioactive glass-containing toothpaste exhibit high resistance toward acidic soft drink challenge

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    Background: Dentine hypersensitivity is a common problem attributed by patent dentinal tubules. Ingredients incorporated in toothpastes aim to occlude patent dentinal tubules to minimize the dentine hypersensitivity. However, frequent consumption of acidic soft drinks may reverse the dentinal tubules' occlusion. In this in vitro study, the efficacy of dentinal tubules occluded by commercially available toothpastes to withstand different durations of an acidic soft drink challenge was investigated. Methods: One hundred and twenty dentine discs were divided into three groups. The discs from each group were brushed with toothpaste containing bioactive glass, arginine and control toothpaste. Each group was then divided into four subgroups and exposed to acidic soft drink over four different time durations. Results: The scoring and the percentage of occluded dentinal tubules by Novamin-containing toothpaste was significantly better compared with arginine or the control toothpaste. Acidic soft drink challenge reduced the extent of dentinal tubules occlusion along with time. Dentinal tubules occluded by Novamin-containing toothpaste withstand the acidic challenge comparatively for a longer period. Conclusions: The findings demonstrated that occlusion of dentinal tubules is more efficient by the bioactive glass-containing toothpaste and thus may contribute to its better resistance to acidic soft drink challenge

    Evaluation of Wound Closure Activity of Nigella sativa

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    Nigella sativa, Melastoma malabathricum, Pluchea indica, and Piper sarmentosum are common Asian traditional medicines to treat minor wounds. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro wound healing properties of aqueous extracts of these plants using human gingival fibroblast (HGF) monolayer as study model. DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts was evaluated and effect on HGF proliferation was determined. Their effect on HGF’s function to synthesize collagen was indicated by the level of hydroxyproline produced and effect on wound healing activity was assessed using an in vitro scratch assay. The influence of the extracts on expression of bFGF and TGF-β was also determined. Results revealed all four extracts to exhibit low free radical scavenging activity. The extract from N. sativa (NSSE) compared to the others showed favourable enhancement of HGF proliferation with EC50 of 22.67±3.06 µg/mL (P<0.05) with accelerated wound closure activity despite its nonsignificant effect on collagen synthesis. In addition to the elevated level of bFGF by up to 15% at 100 µg/mL of NSSE, a slightly better effect was observed on the expression of TGF-β. NSSE thus showed that promising wound healing properties and data obtained may contribute towards validation of its traditional use for the healing of oral wounds

    Effects of salvadora persica extract on the bacterial population in single-species biofilm

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    The effect of S. persica extract on the population of bacteria in single-species biofilm was investigated. An artificial mouth (NAM) system was used for the development of biofilm. In one experiment, aqueous extract of S. persica at sub-MIC concentration (5 mg/mL) was first pumped into the NAM system to treat the experimental pellicle on glass beads before inoculating it with the bacteria (Strep. mitis, Strep. mutans and Strep. sanguinis). This would resemble using the aqueous extract of S. persica before meals. In another experiment, the aqueous extract of S. persica was pumped into the NAM system after the bacterial inoculation and this would resemble using it after meals. In both experiments, 24 h biofilms were allowed to form. The bacterial population of the biofilms was determined and expressed as colony forming unit per mL (cfu mL-1). For negative control, sterilized distilled water was used whereas for positive control, commercial Listerine. It was found that the population of Strep. mitis, Strep. mutans and Strep. sanguinis in the respective biofilms for both experiments involving treatment with S. persica extract or Listerine was significantly reduced by more than 70% (p<0.05) when compared with the negative control. Comparing the effect of S. persica with Listerine on the bacterial population of the biofilms when used either before or after meal showed that S. persica is slightly less effective towards S. sanguinis before meal and towards S. mutans after meal (p<0.05). This study suggests that the efficiency of the antibacterial effect of S. persica is species-related and by its way of usage

    Revisiting the association between candidal infection and carcinoma, particularly oral squamous cell carcinoma

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    Background: Tobacco and alcohol are risk factors associated with cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, but increasingly the role of infection and chronic inflammation is recognized as being significant in cancer development. Bacteria, particularly Helicobacter pylori, and viruses such as members of the human papilloma virus family and hepatitis B and C are strongly implicated as etiological factors in certain cancers. There is less evidence for an association between fungi and cancer, although it has been recognized for many years that white patches on the oral mucosa, which are infected with Candida, have a greater likelihood of undergoing malignant transformation than those that are not infected. Objective: This article reviews the association between the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma in potentially malignant oral lesions with chronic candidal infection and describes mechanisms that may be involved in Candida-associated malignant transformation

    Health behaviour and its relationship with the risk of getting dengue fever at the district of Temerloh Pahang Darul Makmur; a case control study, 1999

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    Dengue Fever and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever infections are common infectious diseases in Malaysia, which caust'S mortality and morbidity and thus losses in teml of economics to the individuals and the country .No satisfactory outcomes has been gained from various prevention and control programmes with multiple strategies. Health behaviour is recognized to be one of the causes for the increase risk of getting the disease. In order to identify the specific health behaviour for future interventions, a matched 1: 1 case control study was conducted at the District of Temerloh Pahang Darul Makmur in June 1999. The factors studied were the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding prevention and control, treatment, law enforcement and level of awareness of the danger caused by Dengue/Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever. Cases were selected from the registration data available at the Temerloh's Health Office with confinned diagnosis starting from the period 1st of January to 31st of December 1998. Whilst the controls were those who were never diagnosed to have DF/DHF and free from the signs and symptoms of the disease until the 31st. of December 1998. Sixty seven pairs of case and control were surveyed. The univariate analysis showed that agreeable to mosquito net usage (p=0.00), agreeable to blood taking (p=0.00), agreeable to stay longer in hospital if complications arise(p=0.00), allowing sick family members to be warded (p=0.03), letting blood to be tested (p=0.001 ). sending sick family members to hospital (p=0.003), aware of the danger of Dengue fever (p=0.039), agreeable that DF must be known by everybody regardless of their disease status (p=0.027), mosquito coil usage (p=0.02), cleaning water containers (p=0.03) and breeding larvae (p=0.03) were factors significantly related to the risk of getting DF/DHF. The multivariate analysis narrowed down the predictors of getting DF/DHF to only agreeable to blood taking (p=0.02), agreeable to mosquito net usage (p=0.03), agreeable to stay longer in hospital if complications arise (p=0.03) and lastly allowing sick family members to be warded (p=0.01). On conclusion, there is a relationship between bad health behaviour and increase risk of getting dengue fever
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