280 research outputs found

    Recognizing Sex Similarities in Cardiovascular Disease Research

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    Brachial Artery Constriction during Brachial Artery Reactivity Testing Predicts Major Adverse Clinical Outcomes in Women with Suspected Myocardial Ischemia: Results from the NHLBI-Sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) Study

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    Background:Limited brachial artery (BA) flow-mediated dilation during brachial artery reactivity testing (BART) has been linked to increased cardiovascular risk. We report on the phenomenon of BA constriction (BAC) following hyperemia.Objectives:To determine whether BAC predicts adverse CV outcomes and/or mortality in the women's ischemic Syndrome Evaluation Study (WISE). Further, as a secondary objective we sought to determine the risk factors associated with BAC.Methods:We performed BART on 377 women with chest pain referred for coronary angiography and followed for a median of 9.5 years. Forearm ischemia was induced with 4 minutes occlusion by a cuff placed distal to the BA and inflated to 40mm Hg > systolic pressure. BAC was defined as >4.8% artery constriction following release of the cuff. The main outcome was major adverse events (MACE) including all-cause mortality, non-fatal MI, non-fatal stroke, or hospitalization for heart failure.Results:BA diameter change ranged from -20.6% to +44.9%, and 41 (11%) women experienced BAC. Obstructive CAD and traditional CAD risk factors were not predictive of BAC. Overall, 39% of women with BAC experienced MACE vs. 22% without BAC (p=0.004). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression, BAC was a significant independent predictor of MACE (p=0.018) when adjusting for obstructive CAD and traditional risk factors.Conclusions:BAC predicts almost double the risk for major adverse events compared to patients without BAC. This risk was not accounted for by CAD or traditional risk factors. The novel risk marker of BAC requires further investigation in women. © 2013 Sedlak et al

    Microvascular Angina: Diagnosis and Management

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    Recognition of suspected ischaemia with no obstructive coronary artery disease – termed INOCA – has increased over the past decades, with a key contributor being microvascular angina. Patients with microvascular angina are at higher risk for major adverse cardiac events including MI, stroke, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and death but to date there are no clear evidence-based guidelines for diagnosis and treatment. Recently, the Coronary Vasomotion Disorders International Study Group proposed standardised criteria for diagnosis of microvascular angina using invasive and non-invasive approaches. The management strategy for remains empirical, largely due to the lack of high-level-evidence-based guidelines and clinical trials. In this review, the authors will illustrate the updated approach to diagnosis of microvascular angina and address evidence-based pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for patients with the condition

    The association of statin use after cancer diagnosis with survival in pancreatic cancer patients: a SEER-medicare analysis.

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    BackgroundPancreatic cancer has poor prognosis and existing interventions provide a modest benefit. Statin has anti-cancer properties that might enhance survival in pancreatic cancer patients. We sought to determine whether statin treatment after cancer diagnosis is associated with longer survival in those with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).MethodsWe analyzed data on 7813 elderly patients with PDAC using the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) - Medicare claims files. Information on the type, intensity and duration of statin use after cancer diagnosis was extracted from Medicare Part D. We treated statin as a time-dependent variable in a Cox regression model to determine the association with overall survival adjusting for follow-up, age, sex, race, neighborhood income, stage, grade, tumor size, pancreatectomy, chemotherapy, radiation, obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes, chronic pancreatitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).ResultsOverall, statin use after cancer diagnosis was not significantly associated with survival when all PDAC patients were considered (HR = 0.94, 95%CI 0.89, 1.01). However, statin use after cancer diagnosis was associated with a 21% reduced hazard of death (Hazard ratio = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67, 0.93) in those with grade I or II PDAC and to a similar extent in those who had undergone a pancreatectomy, in those with chronic pancreatitis and in those who had not been treated with statin prior to cancer diagnosis.ConclusionsWe found that statin treatment after cancer diagnosis is associated with enhanced survival in patients with low-grade, resectable PDAC


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    Comparison of SWAN and WISE Menopausal Status Classification Algorithms

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    Background: Classification of menopausal status is important for epidemiological and clinical studies as well as for clinicians treating midlife women. Most epidemiological studies, including the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), classify women based on self-reported bleeding history. Methods: The Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) study developed an algorithm using menstrual and reproductive history and serum hormone levels to reproduce the menopausal status classifications assigned by the WISE hormone committee. We applied that algorithm to women participating in SWAN and examined characteristics of women with concordant and discordant SWAN and WISE classifications. Results: Of the 3215 SWAN women with complete information at baseline (1995–1997), 2466 (76.7%) received concordant classifications (kappa = 0.52); at the fifth annual follow-up visit, of the 1623 women with complete information, 1154 (72.7%) received concordant classifications (kappa = 0.57). At each time point, we identified subgroups of women with discordant SWAN and WISE classifications. These subgroups, ordered by chronological age, showed increasing trends for menopausal symptoms and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and a decreasing trend for estrogen (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The WISE algorithm is a useful tool for studies that have access to blood samples for hormone data unrelated to menstrual cycle phase, with or without an intact uterus, and no resources for adjudication. Future studies may want to combine aspects of the SWAN and WISE algorithms by adding hormonal measures to the series of bleeding questions in order to determine more precisely where women are in the perimenopausal continuum.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/63232/1/jwh.2006.15.1184.pd

    Cardiometabolic risk-related blood pressure trajectories differ by sex

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    ACC/AHA/NHLBI clinical advisory on the use and safety of statins

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    The voluntary withdrawal of cerivastatin (Baycol) from the U.S. market on August 8, 2001, by the manufacturer, in agreement with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), has prompted concern on the part of physicians and patients regarding the safety of the cholesterol-lowering class of drugs called HMG CoA reductase inhibitors, more commonly known as “statins.” This American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (ACC/AHA/NHLBI) Clinical Advisory is intended to summarize for professionals the current understanding of statin use, focused on myopathy, and to provide updated recommendations for the appropriate use of statins, including cautions, contraindications, and safety monitoring for statin therapy. Its purpose is not to discourage the appropriate use of statins, which have life-saving potential in properly selected patients, particularly those with established coronary heart disease (CHD) and others at high risk for developing CHD. Included are recent myopathy information compiled by the FDA, information from clinical trials, and summaries from the recently released report of the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)
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