3,378 research outputs found

### Automatic estimation of flux distributions of astrophysical source populations

In astrophysics a common goal is to infer the flux distribution of
populations of scientifically interesting objects such as pulsars or
supernovae. In practice, inference for the flux distribution is often conducted
using the cumulative distribution of the number of sources detected at a given
sensitivity. The resulting "$\log(N>S)$-$\log (S)$" relationship can be used to
compare and evaluate theoretical models for source populations and their
evolution. Under restrictive assumptions the relationship should be linear. In
practice, however, when simple theoretical models fail, it is common for
astrophysicists to use prespecified piecewise linear models. This paper
proposes a methodology for estimating both the number and locations of
"breakpoints" in astrophysical source populations that extends beyond existing
work in this field. An important component of the proposed methodology is a new
interwoven EM algorithm that computes parameter estimates. It is shown that in
simple settings such estimates are asymptotically consistent despite the
complex nature of the parameter space. Through simulation studies it is
demonstrated that the proposed methodology is capable of accurately detecting
structural breaks in a variety of parameter configurations. This paper
concludes with an application of our methodology to the Chandra Deep Field
North (CDFN) data set.Comment: Published in at http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/14-AOAS750 the Annals of
Applied Statistics (http://www.imstat.org/aoas/) by the Institute of
Mathematical Statistics (http://www.imstat.org

### Actin in Herpesvirus Infection

Actin is important for a variety of cellular processes, including uptake of extracellular material and intracellular transport. Several emerging lines of evidence indicate that herpesviruses exploit actin and actin-associated myosin motors for viral entry, intranuclear transport of capsids, and virion egress. The goal of this review is to explore these processes and to highlight potential future directions for this area of research

### Development and validation of a chemostat gut model to study both planktonic and biofilm modes of growth of Clostridium difficile and human microbiota

Copyright: 2014 Crowther et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.The human gastrointestinal tract harbours a complex microbial community which exist in planktonic and sessile form. The degree to which composition and function of faecal and mucosal microbiota differ remains unclear. We describe the development and characterisation of an in vitro human gut model, which can be used to facilitate the formation and longitudinal analysis of mature mixed species biofilms. This enables the investigation of the role of biofilms in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). A well established and validated human gut model of simulated CDI was adapted to incorporate glass rods that create a solid-gaseous-liquid interface for biofilm formation. The continuous chemostat model was inoculated with a pooled human faecal emulsion and controlled to mimic colonic conditions in vivo. Planktonic and sessile bacterial populations were enumerated for up to 46 days. Biofilm consistently formed macroscopic structures on all glass rods over extended periods of time, providing a framework to sample and analyse biofilm structures independently. Whilst variation in biofilm biomass is evident between rods, populations of sessile bacterial groups (log10 cfu/g of biofilm) remain relatively consistent between rods at each sampling point. All bacterial groups enumerated within the planktonic communities were also present within biofilm structures. The planktonic mode of growth of C. difficile and gut microbiota closely reflected observations within the original gut model. However, distinct differences were observed in the behaviour of sessile and planktonic C. difficile populations, with C. difficile spores preferentially persisting within biofilm structures. The redesigned biofilm chemostat model has been validated for reproducible and consistent formation of mixed species intestinal biofilms. This model can be utilised for the analysis of sessile mixed species communities longitudinally, potentially providing information of the role of biofilms in CDI.Peer reviewe

### Muon-spin rotation measurements of the vortex state in Sr$_2$RuO$_4$: type-1.5 superconductivity, vortex clustering and a crossover from a triangular to a square vortex lattice

Muon-spin rotation has been used to probe vortex state in Sr$_2$RuO$_4$. At
moderate fields and temperatures a lattice of triangular symmetry is observed,
crossing over to a lattice of square symmetry with increasing field and
temperature. At lower fields it is found that there are large regions of the
sample that are completely free from vortices which grow in volume as the
temperature falls. Importantly this is accompanied by {\it increasing} vortex
density and increasing disorder within the vortex-cluster containing regions.
Both effects are expected to result from the strongly temperature-dependent
long-range vortex attractive forces arising from the multi-band chiral-order
superconductivity.Comment: 13 pages, 4 figure

### Muon-spin-rotation measurements of the penetration depth in Li_2Pd_3B

Measurements of the magnetic field penetration depth $\lambda$ in the ternary
boride superconductor Li$_2$Pd$_3$B ($T_c\simeq7.3$ K) have been carried out by
means of muon-spin rotation ($\mu$SR). The absolute values of $\lambda$, the
Ginzburg-Landau parameter $\kappa$, and the first $H_{c1}$ and the second
$H_{c2}$ critical fields at T=0 obtained from $\mu$SR were found to be
$\lambda(0)=252(2)$ nm, $\kappa(0)=27(1)$, $\mu_0H_{c1}(0)=9.5(1)$ mT, and
$\mu_0H_{c2}(0)=3.66(8)$ T, respectively. The zero-temperature value of the
superconducting gap $\Delta_0=$1.31(3) meV was found, corresponding to the
ratio $2\Delta_0/k_BT_c=4.0(1)$. At low temperatures $\lambda(T)$ saturates and
becomes constant below $T\simeq 0.2T_c$, in agreement with what is expected for
s-wave BCS superconductors. Our results suggest that Li$_2$Pd$_3$B is a s-wave
BCS superconductor with the only one isotropic energy gap.Comment: 6 pages, 7 figure

### Gravity currents and internal waves in a stratified fluid

Author Posting. Β© Cambridge University Press, 2008. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Fluid Mechanics 616 (2008): 327-356, doi:10.1017/S0022112008003984.A steady theory is presented for gravity currents propagating with constant speed into a stratified fluid with a general density profile. Solution curves for front speed versus height have an energy-conserving upper bound (the conjugate state) and a lower bound marked by the onset of upstream influence. The conjugate state is the largest-amplitude nonlinear internal wave supported by the ambient stratification, and in the limit of weak stratification approaches Benjamin's energy-conserving gravity current solution. When the front speed becomes critical with respect to linear long waves generated above the current, steady solutions cannot be calculated, implying upstream influence. For non-uniform stratification, the critical long-wave speed exceeds the ambient long-wave speed, and the critical-Froude-number condition appropriate for uniform stratification must be generalized. The theoretical results demonstrate a clear connection between internal waves and gravity currents. The steady theory is also compared with non-hydrostatic numerical solutions of the full lock release initial-value problem. Some solutions resemble classic gravity currents with no upstream disturbance, but others show long internal waves propagating ahead of the gravity current. Wave generation generally occurs when the stratification and current speed are such that the steady gravity current theory fails. Thus the steady theory is consistent with the occurrence of either wave-generating or steady gravity solutions to the dam-break problem. When the available potential energy of the dam is large enough, the numerical simulations approach the energy-conserving conjugate state. Existing laboratory experiments for intrusions and gravity currents produced by full-depth lock exchange flows over a range of stratification profiles show excellent agreement with the conjugate state solutions.K. R. H. was supported by ONR grant N00014061079

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