1,037 research outputs found

    To servitize is to (re)position : utilizing a Porterian view to understand servitization and value systems

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    Drawing on the case of a global servitizing company in the ship power industry, we use a Porterian toolkit for analyzing the implications of industry power and its consequences on firm vertical (re)positioning within the value system. Whereas repositioning has been seen as a way of moving closer to customers and obtaining new competencies, strategic moves aimed at increasing companies’ sphere of influence were neglected. This chapter illustrates how the power approach to repositioning, through different alternative mechanisms, complements the widespread capability view and contributes to value system analysis in servitization.fi=vertaisarvioitu|en=peerReviewed

    Cytokinesis in bloodstream stage Trypanosoma brucei requires a family of katanins and spastin

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    Microtubule severing enzymes regulate microtubule dynamics in a wide range of organisms and are implicated in important cell cycle processes such as mitotic spindle assembly and disassembly, chromosome movement and cytokinesis. Here we explore the function of several microtubule severing enzyme homologues, the katanins (KAT80, KAT60a, KAT60b and KAT60c), spastin (SPA) and fidgetin (FID) in the bloodstream stage of the African trypanosome parasite, Trypanosoma brucei. The trypanosome cytoskeleton is microtubule based and remains assembled throughout the cell cycle, necessitating its remodelling during cytokinesis. Using RNA interference to deplete individual proteins, we show that the trypanosome katanin and spastin homologues are non-redundant and essential for bloodstream form proliferation. Further, cell cycle analysis revealed that these proteins play essential but discrete roles in cytokinesis. The KAT60 proteins each appear to be important during the early stages of cytokinesis, while downregulation of KAT80 specifically inhibited furrow ingression and SPA depletion prevented completion of abscission. In contrast, RNA interference of FID did not result in any discernible effects. We propose that the stable microtubule cytoskeleton of T. brucei necessitates the coordinated action of a family of katanins and spastin to bring about the cytoskeletal remodelling necessary to complete cell divisio

    A prebiotic, Celmanaxâ„¢, decreases Escherichia coli O157:H7 colonization of bovine cells and feed-associated cytotoxicity in vitro

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p><it>Escherichia coli </it>O157:H7 is the most common serovar of enterohemorrhagic <it>E. coli </it>associated with serious human disease outbreaks. Cattle are the main reservoir with <it>E. coli </it>O157:H7 inducing hemorrhagic enteritis in persistent shedding beef cattle, however little is known about how this pathogen affects cattle health. Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome (JHS) has unclear etiology but the pathology is similar to that described for <it>E. coli </it>O157:H7 challenged beef cattle suggestive that <it>E. coli </it>O157:H7 could be involved. There are no effective treatments for JHS however new approaches to managing pathogen issues in livestock using prebiotics and probiotics are gaining support. The first objective of the current study was to characterize pathogen colonization in hemorrhaged jejunum of dairy cattle during natural JHS outbreaks. The second objective was to confirm the association of mycotoxigenic fungi in feeds with the development of JHS and also to identify the presence of potential mycotoxins. The third objective was to determine the impact of a prebiotic, Celmanaxâ„¢, or probiotic, Dairyman's Choiceâ„¢ paste, on the cytotoxicity associated with feed extracts <it>in vitro</it>. The fourth objective was to determine the impact of a prebiotic or a probiotic on <it>E. coli </it>O157:H7 colonization of mucosal explants and a bovine colonic cell line <it>in vitro</it>. The final objective was to determine if prebiotic and probiotic feed additives could modify the symptoms that preceded JHS losses and the development of new JHS cases.</p> <p>Findings</p> <p>Dairy cattle developed JHS after consuming feed containing several types of mycotoxigenic fungi including <it>Fusarium culmorum</it>, <it>F. poae</it>, <it>F. verticillioides</it>, <it>F. sporotrichioides</it>, <it>Aspergillus</it><it>flavus</it>, <it>Penicillium roqueforti, P. crustosum, P. paneum </it>and <it>P. citrinum</it>. Mixtures of Shiga toxin - producing <it>Escherichia coli </it>(STEC) colonized the mucosa in the hemorrhaged tissues of the cattle and no other pathogen was identified. The STECs expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood clot blocking the jejunum. Mycotoxin analysis of the corn crop confirmed the presence of fumonisin, NIV, ZEAR, DON, 15-ADON, 3-ADON, NEO, DAS, HT-2 and T-2. Feed extracts were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% Celmanaxâ„¢ removed the cytotoxicity <it>in vitro</it>. There was no effect of Dairyman's Choiceâ„¢ paste on feed-extract activity <it>in vitro</it>. Fumonisin, T-2, ZEAR and DON were toxic to bovine cells and 0.1% Celmanaxâ„¢ removed the cytotoxicity <it>in vitro</it>. Celmanaxâ„¢ also directly decreased <it>E. coli </it>O157:H7 colonization of mucosal explants and a colonic cell line in a dose-dependent manner. There was no effect of Dairyman's Choiceâ„¢ paste on <it>E. coli </it>O157:H7 colonization <it>in vitro</it>. The inclusion of the prebiotic and probiotic in the feed was associated with a decline in disease.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The current study confirmed an association between mycotoxigenic fungi in the feed and the development of JHS in cattle. This association was further expanded to include mycotoxins in the feed and mixtures of STECs colonizing the severely hemorrhaged tissues. Future studies should examine the extent of involvement of the different STEC in the infection process. The prebiotic, Celmanaxâ„¢, acted as an anti-adhesive for STEC colonization and a mycotoxin binder <it>in vitro</it>. Future studies should determine the extent of involvement of the prebiotic in altering disease.</p

    An isolated, bright cusp aurora at Saturn

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    Saturn's dayside aurora displays a number of morphological features poleward of the main emission region. We present an unusual morphology captured by the Hubble Space Telescope on 14 June 2014 (day 165), where for 2 h, Saturn's FUV aurora faded almost entirely, with the exception of a distinct emission spot at high latitude. The spot remained fixed in local time between 10 and 15 LT and moved poleward to a minimum colatitude of ~4°. It was bright and persistent, displaying intensities of up to 49 kR over a lifetime of 2 h. Interestingly, the spot constituted the entirety of the northern auroral emission, with no emissions present at any other local time—including Saturn's characteristic dawn arc, the complete absence of which is rarely observed. Solar wind parameters from propagation models, together with a Cassini magnetopause crossing and solar wind encounter, indicate that Saturn's magnetosphere was likely to have been embedded in a rarefaction region, resulting in an expanded magnetosphere configuration during the interval. We infer that the spot was sustained by reconnection either poleward of the cusp or at low latitudes under a strong component of interplanetary magnetic field transverse to the solar wind flow. The subsequent poleward motion could then arise from either reconfiguration of successive open field lines across the polar cap or convection of newly opened field lines. We also consider the possible modulation of the feature by planetary period rotating current systems

    Jet energy measurement with the ATLAS detector in proton-proton collisions at root s=7 TeV

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    The jet energy scale and its systematic uncertainty are determined for jets measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC in proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of √s = 7TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 38 pb-1. Jets are reconstructed with the anti-kt algorithm with distance parameters R=0. 4 or R=0. 6. Jet energy and angle corrections are determined from Monte Carlo simulations to calibrate jets with transverse momenta pT≥20 GeV and pseudorapidities {pipe}η{pipe}<4. 5. The jet energy systematic uncertainty is estimated using the single isolated hadron response measured in situ and in test-beams, exploiting the transverse momentum balance between central and forward jets in events with dijet topologies and studying systematic variations in Monte Carlo simulations. The jet energy uncertainty is less than 2. 5 % in the central calorimeter region ({pipe}η{pipe}<0. 8) for jets with 60≤pT<800 GeV, and is maximally 14 % for pT<30 GeV in the most forward region 3. 2≤{pipe}η{pipe}<4. 5. The jet energy is validated for jet transverse momenta up to 1 TeV to the level of a few percent using several in situ techniques by comparing a well-known reference such as the recoiling photon pT, the sum of the transverse momenta of tracks associated to the jet, or a system of low-pT jets recoiling against a high-pT jet. More sophisticated jet calibration schemes are presented based on calorimeter cell energy density weighting or hadronic properties of jets, aiming for an improved jet energy resolution and a reduced flavour dependence of the jet response. The systematic uncertainty of the jet energy determined from a combination of in situ techniques is consistent with the one derived from single hadron response measurements over a wide kinematic range. The nominal corrections and uncertainties are derived for isolated jets in an inclusive sample of high-pT jets. Special cases such as event topologies with close-by jets, or selections of samples with an enhanced content of jets originating from light quarks, heavy quarks or gluons are also discussed and the corresponding uncertainties are determined. © 2013 CERN for the benefit of the ATLAS collaboration

    Measurement of the inclusive and dijet cross-sections of b-jets in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector