5,243 research outputs found

    Changing discourses in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health research, 1914-2014

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    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people strongly assert that health research has contributed little to improving their health, in spite of its obvious potential. The health concerns of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were largely ignored in early research published in the MJA, which reflected broader colonial history and racial discourses. This began to change with the demise of scientific racism, and changed policies and political campaigns for equal treatment of Indigenous people after the Second World War. In response to pressure from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and organisations, in parallel to broader political struggles for Indigenous rights since the 1970s, there have been significant and measurable changes to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health research. Many of these changes have been about the ethics of health research. Increasingly, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander researchers, communities and organisations are now controlling and decolonising health research to better meet their needs, in collaboration with non-Indigenous researchers and research organisations

    Grasping nothing: a study of minimal ontologies and the sense of music

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    If music were to have a proper sense – one in which it is truly given – one might reasonably place this in sound and aurality. I contend, however, that no such sense exists; rather, the sense of music takes place, and it does so with the impossible. To this end, this thesis – which is a work of philosophy and music – advances an ontology of the impossible (i.e., it thinks the being of what, properly speaking, can have no being) and considers its implications for music, articulating how ontological aporias – of the event, of thinking the absolute, and of sovereignty’s dismemberment – imply senses of music that are anterior to sound. John Cage’s Silent Prayer, a nonwork he never composed, compels a rerethinking of silence on the basis of its contradictory status of existence; Florian Hecker et al.’s Speculative Solution offers a basis for thinking absolute music anew to the precise extent that it is a discourse of meaninglessness; and Manfred Werder’s [yearn] pieces exhibit exemplarily that music’s sense depends on the possibility of its counterfeiting. Inso-much as these accounts produce musical senses that take the place of sound, they are also understood to be performances of these pieces. Here, then, thought is music’s organon and its instrument

    Modelling Blood Flow and Metabolism in the Piglet Brain During Hypoxia-Ischaemia: Simulating pH Changes

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    We describe the extension of a computational model of blood flow and metabolism in the piglet brain to investigate changes in neonatal intracellular brain pH during hypoxia-ischemia (HI). The model is able to simulate near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measurements obtained from HI experiments conducted in piglets. We adopt a method of using (31)P-MRS data to estimate of intracellular pH and compare measured pH and oxygenation with their modelled counterparts. We show that both NIRS and MRS measurements are predicted well in the new version of the model

    Digital libraries unfurled: supporting the New Zealand flag debate

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    This article reports on the development of an interactive web environment, backed by a digital library, that supports the creation of new flag designs. Specifically, it supports the user through an iterative design process, guided by principles drawn from the field of Vexillology. The work has been motivated by a legally binding referendum on the issue in New Zealand, planned to occur in late 2015/early 2016

    Bridging Alone: Religious Conservatism, Marital Homogamy, and Voluntary Association Membership

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    This study characterizes social insularity of religiously conservative American married couples by examining patterns of voluntary associationmembership. Constructing a dataset of 3938 marital dyads from the second wave of the National Survey of Families and Households, the author investigates whether conservative religious homogamy encourages membership in religious voluntary groups and discourages membership in secular voluntary groups. Results indicate that couples’ shared affiliation with conservative denominations, paired with beliefs in biblical authority and inerrancy, increases the likelihood of religious group membership for husbands and wives and reduces the likelihood of secular group membership for wives, but not for husbands. The social insularity of conservative religious groups appears to be reinforced by homogamy—particularly by wives who share faith with husbands

    Quantification of Prostate Cancer Metabolism Using 3D Multiecho bSSFP and Hyperpolarized [1-13 C] Pyruvate: Metabolism Differs Between Tumors of the Same Gleason Grade

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    BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional (3D) multiecho balanced steady-state free precession (ME-bSSFP) has previously been demonstrated in preclinical hyperpolarized (HP) 13 C-MRI in vivo experiments, and it may be suitable for clinical metabolic imaging of prostate cancer (PCa). PURPOSE: To validate a signal simulation framework for the use of sequence parameter optimization. To demonstrate the feasibility of ME-bSSFP for HP 13 C-MRI in patients. To evaluate the metabolism in PCa measured by ME-bSSFP. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective single-center cohort study. PHANTOMS/POPULATION: Phantoms containing aqueous solutions of [1-13 C] lactate (2.3 M) and [13 C] urea (8 M). Eight patients (mean age 67 ± 6 years) with biopsy-confirmed Gleason 3 + 4 (n = 7) and 4 + 3 (n = 1) PCa. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCES: 1 H MRI at 3 T with T2 -weighted turbo spin-echo sequence used for spatial localization and spoiled dual gradient-echo sequence used for B0 -field measurement. ME-bSSFP sequence for 13 C MR spectroscopic imaging with retrospective multipoint IDEAL metabolite separation. ASSESSMENT: The primary endpoint was the analysis of pyruvate-to-lactate conversion in PCa and healthy prostate regions of interest (ROIs) using model-free area under the curve (AUC) ratios and a one-directional kinetic model (kP ). The secondary objectives were to investigate the correlation between simulated and experimental ME-bSSFP metabolite signals for HP 13 C-MRI parameter optimization. STATISTICAL TESTS: Pearson correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals and paired t-tests. The level of statistical significance was set at P  0.96). Therefore, the simulation framework was used for sequence optimization. Whole prostate metabolic HP 13 C-MRI, observing the conversion of pyruvate into lactate, with a temporal resolution of 6 seconds was demonstrated using ME-bSSFP. Both assessed metrics resulted in significant differences between PCa (mean ± SD) (AUC = 0.33 ± 012, kP  = 0.038 ± 0.014) and healthy (AUC = 0.15 ± 0.10, kP  = 0.011 ± 0.007) ROIs. DATA CONCLUSION: Metabolic HP 13 C-MRI in the prostate using ME-bSSFP allows for differentiation between aggressive PCa and healthy tissue. EVIDENCE LEVEL: 2 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 1

    Performance of CMS muon reconstruction in pp collision events at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

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    The performance of muon reconstruction, identification, and triggering in CMS has been studied using 40 inverse picobarns of data collected in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV at the LHC in 2010. A few benchmark sets of selection criteria covering a wide range of physics analysis needs have been examined. For all considered selections, the efficiency to reconstruct and identify a muon with a transverse momentum pT larger than a few GeV is above 95% over the whole region of pseudorapidity covered by the CMS muon system, abs(eta) < 2.4, while the probability to misidentify a hadron as a muon is well below 1%. The efficiency to trigger on single muons with pT above a few GeV is higher than 90% over the full eta range, and typically substantially better. The overall momentum scale is measured to a precision of 0.2% with muons from Z decays. The transverse momentum resolution varies from 1% to 6% depending on pseudorapidity for muons with pT below 100 GeV and, using cosmic rays, it is shown to be better than 10% in the central region up to pT = 1 TeV. Observed distributions of all quantities are well reproduced by the Monte Carlo simulation.Comment: Replaced with published version. Added journal reference and DO

    Performance of CMS muon reconstruction in pp collision events at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV