3,737 research outputs found

    Optimal Microlensing Observations

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    One of the major limitations of microlensing observations toward the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is the low rate of event detection. What can be done to improve this rate? Is it better to invest telescope time in more frequent observations of the inner high surface-brightness fields, or in covering new, less populated outer fields? How would a factor 2 improvement in CCD sensitivity affect the detection efficiency? Would a series of major (factor 2--4) upgrades in telescope aperture, seeing, sky brightness, camera size, and detector efficiency increase the event rate by a huge factor, or only marginally? I develop a simplified framework to address these questions. With observational resources fixed at the level of the MACHO and EROS experiments, the biggest improvement (factor ~2) would come by reducing the time spent on the inner ~25 deg^2 and applying it to the outer ~100 deg^2. By combining this change with the characteristics of a good medium-size telescope (2.5 m mirror, 1" point spread function, thinned CCD chips, 1 deg^2 camera, and dark sky), it should be possible to increase the detection of LMC events to more than 100 per year (assuming current estimates of the optical depth apply to the entire LMC).Comment: Submitted to ApJ, 13 pages plus 3 figure

    Asymptotic behavior of compositions of under-relaxed nonexpansive operators

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    In general there exists no relationship between the fixed point sets of the composition and of the average of a family of nonexpansive operators in Hilbert spaces. In this paper, we establish an asymptotic principle connecting the cycles generated by under-relaxed compositions of nonexpansive operators to the fixed points of the average of these operators. In the special case when the operators are projectors onto closed convex sets, we prove a conjecture by De Pierro which has so far been established only for projections onto affine subspaces

    The Anomaly in the Candidate Microlensing Event PA-99-N2

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    The lightcurve of PA-99-N2, one of the recently announced microlensing candidates towards M31, shows small deviations from the standard Paczynski form. We explore a number of possible explanations, including correlations with the seeing, the parallax effect and a binary lens. We find that the observations are consistent with an unresolved RGB or AGB star in M31 being microlensed by a binary lens. We find that the best fit binary lens mass ratio is about one hundredth, which is one of most extreme values found for a binary lens so far. If both the source and lens lie in the M31 disk, then the standard M31 model predicts the probable mass range of the system to be 0.02-3.6 solar masses (95 % confidence limit). In this scenario, the mass of the secondary component is therefore likely to be below the hydrogen-burning limit. On the other hand, if a compact halo object in M31 is lensing a disk or spheroid source, then the total lens mass is likely to lie between 0.09-32 solar masses, which is consistent with the primary being a stellar remnant and the secondary a low mass star or brown dwarf. The optical depth (or alternatively the differential rate) along the line of sight toward the event indicates that a halo lens is more likely than a stellar lens provided that dark compact objects comprise no less than 15 per cent (or 5 per cent) of haloes.Comment: Latex, 23 pages, 9 figures, in press at The Astrophysical Journa

    Measurement of Wγ and Zγ production in pp collisions at √s = 7 TeV

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    21 pĂĄginas, 7 figuras, 2 tablas.-- Open access: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0.-- CMS collaboration: et al.A measurement of WÎł and ZÎł production in proton–proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV is presented. Results are based on a data sample recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 pb−1. The electron and muon decay channels of the W and Z are used. The total cross sections are measured for photon transverse energy EÎł T > 10 GeV and spatial separation from charged leptons in the plane of pseudorapidity and azimuthal angle R( ,Îł) > 0.7, and with an additional dilepton invariant mass requirement of M > 50 GeV for the ZÎł process. The following cross section times branching fraction values are found: σ(pp→WÎł + X) × B(W→ Îœ) = 56.3 ± 5.0(stat.) ± 5.0(syst.)±2.3(lumi.) pb and σ(pp→ZÎł + X)×B(Z→ ) = 9.4±1.0(stat.)±0.6(syst.)±0.4(lumi.) pb. These measurements are in agreement with standard model predictions. The first limits on anomalous WWÎł , ZZÎł , and Zγγ trilinear gauge couplings at √s =7 TeV are set.Acknowledge support from: FMSR (Austria); FNRS and FWO (Belgium); CNPq, CAPES, FAPERJ, and FAPESP (Brazil); MES (Bulgaria); CERN; CAS, MoST, and NSFC (China); COLCIENCIAS (Colombia); MSES (Croatia); RPF (Cyprus); Academy of Sciences and NICPB (Estonia); Academy of Finland, ME, and HIP (Finland); CEA and CNRS/IN2P3 (France); BMBF, DFG, and HGF (Germany); GSRT (Greece); OTKA and NKTH (Hungary); DAE and DST (India); IPM (Iran); SFI (Ireland); INFN (Italy); NRF and WCU (Korea); LAS (Lithuania); CINVESTAV, CONACYT, SEP, and UASLPFAI (Mexico); PAEC (Pakistan); SCSR (Poland); FCT (Portugal); JINR (Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan); MST and MAE (Russia); MSTD (Serbia); MICINN and CPAN (Spain); Swiss Funding Agencies (Switzerland); NSC (Taipei); TUBITAK and TAEK (Turkey); STFC (United Kingdom); DOE and NSF (USA).Peer reviewe

    AgapeZ1: a Large Amplification Microlensing Event or an Odd Variable Star Towards the Inner Bulge of M31

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    AgapeZ1 is the brightest and the shortest duration microlensing candidate event found in the Agape data. It occured only 42" from the center of M31. Our photometry shows that the half intensity duration of the event6 is 4.8 days and at maximum brightness we measure a stellar magnitude of R=18.0 with B-R=0.80 mag color. A search on HST archives produced a single resolved star within the projected event position error box. Its magnitude is R=22.Comment: 4 pages with 5 figure

    Search for a W boson decaying to a muon and a neutrino in pp collisions at √s = 7 TeV

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    20 páginas, 4 figuras, 3 tablas.-- Open access: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0.-- CMS Collaboration: et al.A new heavy gauge boson, W', decaying to a muon and a neutrino, is searched for in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The data, collected with the CMS detector at the LHC, correspond to an integrated luminosity of 36 pb−1. No significant excess of events above the standard model expectation is found in the transverse mass distribution of the muon–neutrino system. Masses below 1.40 TeV are excluded at the 95% confidence level for a sequential standard-model-like W'. The W' mass lower limit increases to 1.58 TeV when the present analysis is combined with the CMS result for the electron channel.Acknowledge support from: FMSR (Austria); FNRS and FWO (Belgium); CNPq, CAPES, FAPERJ, and FAPESP (Brazil); MES (Bulgaria); CERN; CAS, MoST, and NSFC (China); COLCIENCIAS (Colombia); MSES (Croatia); RPF (Cyprus); Academy of Sciences and NICPB (Estonia); Academy of Finland, ME, and HIP (Finland); CEA and CNRS/IN2P3 (France); BMBF, DFG, and HGF (Germany); GSRT (Greece); OTKA and NKTH (Hungary); DAE and DST (India); IPM (Iran); SFI (Ireland); INFN (Italy); NRF and WCU (Korea); LAS (Lithuania); CINVESTAV, CONACYT, SEP, and UASLPFAI (Mexico); PAEC (Pakistan); SCSR (Poland); FCT (Portugal); JINR (Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan); MST and MAE (Russia); MSTD (Serbia); MICINN and CPAN (Spain); Swiss Funding Agencies (Switzerland); NSC (Taipei); TUBITAK and TAEK (Turkey); STFC (United Kingdom); DOE and NSF (USA).Peer reviewe

    Multilevel and multiscale drought reanalysis over France with the Safran-Isba-Modcou hydrometeorological suite

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    Physically-based droughts can be defined as a water deficit in at least one component of the land surface hydrological cycle. The reliance of different activity domains (water supply, irrigation, hydropower, etc.) on specific components of this cycle requires drought monitoring to be based on indices related to meteorological, agricultural, and hydrological droughts. This paper describes a high-resolution retrospective analysis of such droughts in France over the last fifty years, based on the Safran-Isba-Modcou (SIM) hydrometeorological suite. The high-resolution 1958–2008 Safran atmospheric reanalysis was used to force the Isba land surface scheme and the hydrogeological model Modcou. Meteorological droughts are characterized with the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) at time scales varying from 1 to 24 months. Similar standardizing methods were applied to soil moisture and streamflow for identifying multiscale agricultural droughts – through the Standardized Soil Wetness Index (SSWI) – and multiscale hydrological droughts, through the Standardized Flow Index (SFI). Based on a common threshold level for all indices, drought event statistics over the 50-yr period – number of events, duration, severity and magnitude – have been derived locally in order to highlight regional differences at multiple time scales and at multiple levels of the hydrological cycle (precipitation, soil moisture, streamflow). Results show a substantial variety of temporal drought patterns over the country that are highly dependent on both the variable and time scale considered. Independent spatio-temporal drought events have then been identified and described by combining local characteristics with the evolution of area under drought. Summary statistics have finally been used to compare past severe drought events, from multi-year precipitation deficits (1989–1990) to short hot and dry periods (2003). Results show that the ranking of drought events depends highly on both the time scale and the variable considered. This multilevel and multiscale drought climatology will serve as a basis for assessing the impacts of climate change on droughts in France
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