204 research outputs found

    Mosque-based emotional support among young Muslim Americans

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    Despite a growing literature on social support networks in religious settings (i.e., church-based social support), little is known about mosque-based support among Muslims. This study investigates the demographic and religious behavior correlates of mosque-based social support among a multi-racial and ethnic sample of 231 young Muslims from southeast Michigan. Several dimensions of mosque-based support are examined including receiving emotional support, giving emotional support, anticipated emotional support and negative interactions with members of one’s mosque. Results indicated that women both received and antic- ipated receiving greater support than did men. Higher educational attainment was associated with receiving and giving less support compared to those with the lowest level of educational attainment. Moreover, highly educated members reported fewer negative interactions than less educated members. Mosque attendance and level of congregational involvement positively predicted receiving, giving, and anticipated emotional support from congregants, but was unrelated to negative interactions. Overall, the study results converge with previously established correlates of church- based emotional support.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/107410/1/art%3A10.1007%2Fs13644-013-0119-0(1).pd

    Combined Forward-Backward Asymmetry Measurements in Top-Antitop Quark Production at the Tevatron

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    The CDF and D0 experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron have measured the asymmetry between yields of forward- and backward-produced top and antitop quarks based on their rapidity difference and the asymmetry between their decay leptons. These measurements use the full data sets collected in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of s=1.96\sqrt s =1.96 TeV. We report the results of combinations of the inclusive asymmetries and their differential dependencies on relevant kinematic quantities. The combined inclusive asymmetry is AFBttňČ=0.128¬Ī0.025A_{\mathrm{FB}}^{t\bar{t}} = 0.128 \pm 0.025. The combined inclusive and differential asymmetries are consistent with recent standard model predictions

    Higgs physics and the Layer Zero upgrade for D0

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    M.S. (Master of Science

    Angiotensin II type 1 and 2 receptors in conduit arteries of normal developing microswine

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    OBJECTIVE: To identify vascular cells capable of responding to angiotensin II (Ang II) generated in conduit arteries, we examined the Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and Ang II type 2 receptor (AT2R) in the thoracic aorta (TA) and abdominal aorta (AA) and branches in 90-day fetal, 3-week postnatal, and 6-month adult microswine. METHODS AND RESULTS: By autoradiography ((125)I-[Sar(1)Ile(8)]-Ang II with or without AT1R- or AT2R-selective analogues or (125)I-CGP 42112), there were striking rostrocaudal differences in (1) AT2R binding at all ages (prominent in AA wall and branches, sparse in TA wall and branches) and (2) a non-AT2R binding site for CGP 42112 (consistently evident in postnatal TA and branches but absent in AA and branches). Furthermore, patterns of AT2R distribution in infradiaphragmatic arteries were developmentally distinct. In fetal AAs, high-density AT2Rs occupied the inner 60% of the medial-endothelial wall. In postnatal AAs, AT2Rs were sparse in the medial-endothelial wall but prominent in a circumferential smooth muscle alpha-actin-negative cell layer at the medial-adventitial border, occupying approximately 20% to 25% of the AA cross-sectional area. AT1R density in the TA and AA medial-endothelial wall increased with age, whereas AT2R density decreased after birth. CONCLUSIONS: A novel AT2R-positive cell layer confined to postnatal infradiaphragmatic arteries physically links adventitial and medial layers, appears optimally positioned to transduce AT2R-dependent functions of local Ang II, and suggests that adventitial Ang II may elicit regionally distinct vascular responses

    ANG II AT(1) and AT(2) receptors in developing kidney of normal microswine

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    To identify an appropriate model of human renin-angiotensin system (RAS) involvement in fetal origins of adult disease, we quantitated renal ANG II AT(1) and AT(2) receptors (AT1R and AT2R, respectively) in fetal (90-day gestation, n = 14), neonatal (3-wk, n = 5), and adult (6-mo, n = 8) microswine by autoradiography ((125)I-labeled [Sar(1)Ile(8)]ANG II+cold CGP-42112 for AT1R, (125)I-CGP-42112 for AT2R) and by whole kidney radioligand binding. The developmental pattern of renal AT1R in microswine, like many species, exhibited a 10-fold increase postnatally (P \u3c 0.001), with maximal postnatal density in glomeruli and lower density AT1R in extraglomerular cortical and outer medullary sites. With aging, postnatal AT1R glomerular profiles increased in size (P \u3c 0.001) and fractional area occupied (P \u3c 0.04), with no change in the number per unit area. Cortical levels of AT2R by autoradiography fell with age from congruent with 5,000 fmol/g in fetal kidneys to congruent with 60 and 20% of fetal levels in neonatal and adult cortex, respectively (P \u3c 0.0001). The pattern of AT2R binding in postnatal pig kidney mimicked that described in human and simian, but not rodent, species: dense AT2R confined to discrete cortical structures, including pre- and juxtaglomerular, but not intraglomerular, vasculature. Our results provide a quantitative assessment of ANG II receptors in developing pig kidney and document the concordance of pigs and primates in developmental regulation of renal AT1R and AT2R

    Chymase-like angiotensin II-generating activity in end-stage human autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

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    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by exuberant inflammation and fibrosis, a process believed to contribute to progressive loss of normal renal function. Despite early-onset hypertension and intrarenal renin/angiotensin II (AngII) activation, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition does not consistently confer renal protection in ADPKD. The hypothesis was that mast cells within the inflammatory interstitium release chymase, an enzyme capable of efficient conversion of AngI to AngII, providing an ACE-independent route of AngII generation. End-stage ADPKD renal tissue extracts and cyst fluids were assayed for time-dependent, chymostatin-inhibitable conversion of (125)I-AngI to (125)I-AngII under conditions of ACE and aminopeptidase inhibition by means of HPLC. Thirteen of 14 ADPKD kidney extracts exhibited chymase-like AngII-generating capacity; calculated initial reaction rates averaged 3.9 +/- 2.9 fmol AngII/min/ micro g protein with a mean maximal conversion of 55% +/- 30% of added substrate. AngII-generating activity was both protein and substrate dependent. All five cyst fluid samples were negative. Chymase-like activity was detectable in only three of six non-ADPKD kidney extracts. Immunoreactive chymase protein was present in/around mast cells within the fibrotic renal interstitium in all samples. Findings demonstrate for the first time the presence of mast cells, mast cell-associated immunoreactive chymase protein, and chymase-like AngII generating capacity in ADPKD cystic kidneys. Results support the potential for ACE-independent AngII generation and for mast cell-initiated inflammatory processes in ADPKD, each with therapeutic implications for ADPKD renal progression
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