19 research outputs found

    The ice composition in the disk around V883 Ori revealed by its stellar outburst

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    Complex organic molecules (COMs), which are the seeds of prebiotic material and precursors of amino acids and sugars, form in the icy mantles of circumstellar dust grains but cannot be detected remotely unless they are heated and released to the gas phase. Around solar-mass stars, water and COMs only sublimate in the inner few au of the disk, making them extremely difficult to spatially resolve and study. Sudden increases in the luminosity of the central star will quickly expand the sublimation front (so-called snow line) to larger radii, as seen previously in the FU Ori outburst of the young star V883 Ori. In this paper, we take advantage of the rapid increase in disk temperature of V883 Ori to detect and analyze five different COMs, methanol, acetone, acetonitrile, acetaldehyde, and methyl formate, in spatially-resolved submillimeter observations. The COMs abundances in V883 Ori is in reasonable agreement with cometary values. This result suggests that outbursting young stars can provide a special opportunity to study the ice composition of material directly related to planet formation.Comment: Published in Nature Astronom

    Spectral survey of a Hot core with an Eruptive Accretion in S255IR NIRS3 (SHEA): The discovery of class I and class II millimeter methanol maser transitions

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    We report the detection of the millimeter CH3_3OH masers including a new detection of class I (110,11_{0,11}-101,10_{1,10}A) and class II (61,5_{1,5}-52,4_{2,4}E) maser transitions toward the high-mass protostar S255IR NIRS3 in post-burst phase. The CH3_3OH emissions were detected as a mixture of maser and thermal characteristics. We examine the detected transitions using an excitation diagram and LTE model spectra and compare the observed properties with those of thermal lines. Class II CH3_3OH maser transitions showed distinctive intensity and velocity distributions from those of thermal transitions. Bright distinct emission components in addition to the fragmented and arc-shaped emissions are only detected in class I CH3_3OH maser transitions toward southern and western directions from the protostellar position, implying the presence of the slow outflow shocks.Comment: 9 pages, 4 Figures, 1 Table, Accepted for publication in ApJ

    The relationship between mid-infrared and sub-millimetre variability of deeply embedded protostars

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    Funding: The contribution of CCP was funded by a Leverhulme Trust Research Project Grant. AS is supported by the STFC grant no. ST/R000824/1. GJH is supported by general grant 11773002 awarded by the National Science Foundation of China. DJ is supported by NRC Canada and by an NSERC Discovery Grant. J-EL and GB are supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (grant no. NRF-2018R1A2B6003423) and the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute under the R&D program supervised by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning. G.B. was also supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean Government (NRF-2017H1A2A1043046-Global Ph.D.Fellowship Program).We study the relationship between the mid-infrared (mid-IR) and sub-millimetre (sub-mm) variability of deeply embedded protostars using the multi-epoch data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE/NEOWISE) and the ongoing James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Transient Survey. Our search for signs of stochastic (random) and/or secular (roughly monotonic in time) variability in a sample of 59 young stellar objects (YSOs) revealed that 35 are variable in at least one of the two surveys. This variability is dominated by secular changes. Of those objects with secular variability, 14 objects (⁠22 per cent of the sample) show correlated secular variability over mid-IR and sub-mm wavelengths. Variable accretion is the likely mechanism responsible for this type of variability. Fluxes of YSOs that vary in both wavelengths follow a relation of log10F4.6(t) = ηlog10F850(t) between the mid-IR and sub-mm, with η = 5.53 ± 0.29. This relationship arises from the fact that sub-mm fluxes respond to the dust temperature in the larger envelope whereas the mid-IR emissivity is more directly proportional to the accretion luminosity. The exact scaling relation, however, depends on the structure of the envelope, the importance of viscous heating in the disc, and dust opacity laws.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Complex Organic Molecules in a Very Young Hot Corino, HOPS 373SW

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    We present the spectra of Complex Organic Molecules (COMs) detected in HOPS 373SW with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). HOPS 373SW, which is a component of a protostellar binary with a separation of 1500 au, has been discovered as a variable protostar by the JCMT Transient monitoring survey with a modest ~30% brightness increase at submillimeter wavelengths. Our ALMA Target of Opportunity (ToO) observation at ~345 GHz for HOPS 373SW revealed extremely young chemical characteristics with strong deuteration of methanol. The dust continuum opacity is very high toward the source center, obscuring line emission from within 0.03 arcsec. The other binary component, HOPS 373NE, was detected only in C17O in our observation, implying a cold and quiescent environment. We compare the COMs abundances relative to CH3OH in HOPS 373SW with those of V883 Ori, which is an eruptive disk object, as well as other hot corinos, to demonstrate the chemical evolution from envelope to disk. High abundances of singly, doubly, and triply deuterated methanol (CH2DOH, CHD2OH, and CD3OH) and a low CH3CN abundance in HOPS 373SW compared to other hot corinos suggest a very early evolutionary stage of HOPS 373SW in the hot corino phase. Since the COMs detected in HOPS 373SW would have been sublimated very recently from grain surfaces, HOPS 373SW is a promising place to study the surface chemistry of COMs in the cold prestellar phase, before sublimation.Comment: Accepted for publication in Ap

    Observational signatures of outbursting protostars - I: From hydrodynamic simulations to observations

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    Accretion onto protostars may occur in sharp bursts. Accretion bursts during the embedded phase of young protostars are probably most intense, but can only be inferred indirectly through long-wavelength observations. We perform radiative transfer calculations for young stellar objects (YSOs) formed in hydrodynamic simulations to predict the long wavelength, sub-mm and mm, flux responses to episodic accretion events, taking into account heating from the young protostar and from the interstellar radiation field. We find that the flux increase due to episodic accretion events is more prominent at sub-mm wavelengths than at mm wavelengths; e.g. a factor of ∼570 increase in the luminosity of the young protostar leads to a flux increase of a factor of 47 at 250 μ μ m but only a factor of 10 at 1.3 mm. Heating from the interstellar radiation field may reduce further the flux increase observed at longer wavelengths. We find that during FU Ori-type outbursts the bolometric temperature and luminosity may incorrectly classify a source as a more evolved YSO due to a larger fraction of the radiation of the object being emitted at shorter wavelengths

    Observational signatures of outbursting protostars - II: Exploring a wide range of eruptive protostars

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    Young stars exhibit variability due to changes in the gas accretion rate onto them, an effect that should be quite significant in the early stages of their formation. As protostars are embedded within their natal cloud, this variability may only be inferred through long wavelength observations. We perform radiative transfer simulations of young stellar objects (YSOs) formed in hydrodynamical simulations, varying the structure and luminosity properties in order to estimate the long-wavelength, sub-mm and mm, variations of their flux. We find that the flux increase due to an outburst event depends on the protostellar structure and is more prominent at sub-mm wavelengths than at mm wavelengths; e.g. a factor of 40 increase in the luminosity of the young protostar leads to a flux increase of a factor of 10 at 250 μm but only a factor of 2.5 at 1.3 mm. We find that the interstellar radiation field dilutes the flux increase but that this effect may be avoided if resolution permits the monitoring of the inner regions of a YSO, where the heating is primarily due to protostellar radiation. We also confirm that the bolometric temperature and luminosity of outbursting protostars may result in an incorrect classification of their evolutionary stage

    Young Faithful: The eruptions of EC 53 as it cycles through filling and draining the inner disk

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    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from the American Astronomical Society via the DOI in this recordWhile young stellar objects sometimes undergo bursts of accretion, these bursts usually occur sporadically, making them challenging to study observationally and to explain theoretically. We build a schematic description of cyclical bursts of the young stellar object EC 53 using near-IR and sub-mm monitoring obtained over six cycles, each lasting ⇡ 530 days. EC 53 brightens over 0.12 yr by 0.3 mag at 850 µm, 2 mag at 3.35 µm, and 1.5 mag at near-IR wavelengths, to a maximum luminosity consistent with an accretion rate of ⇠ 8⇥106 M yr1. The emission then decays with an e-folding timescale of ⇡ 0.74 yr until the accretion rate is ⇠ 1⇥106 M yr1. The next eruption then occurs, likely triggered by the buildup of ⇠ 5 ⇥ 106 M of mass in the inner disk, enough that it becomes unstable and drains onto the star. Just before outburst, when the disk is almost replenished, the near-IR colors become redder, indicating an increase in the geometrical height of the disk by this mass buildup. The reddening disappears soon after the initial burst, as much of the mass is drained from the disk. We quantify physical parameters related to the accretion process in EC 53 by assuming an a-disk formulation, constrained by the observed disk properties and accretion rate. While we can only speculate about the possible trigger for these faithful eruptions, we hope that our quantified schematic will motivate theorists to test the hypothesized mechanisms that could cause the cyclical buildup and draining of mass in the inner disk

    Complex Organic Molecules Detected in 12 High-mass Star-forming Regions with Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array

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    Recent astrochemical models and experiments have explained that complex organic molecules (COMs; molecules composed of six or more atoms) are produced on the dust grain mantles in cold and dense gas in prestellar cores. However, the detailed chemical processes and the roles of physical conditions on chemistry are still far from understood. To address these questions, we investigated 12 high-mass star-forming regions using Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Band 6 observations. They are associated with 44/95 GHz class I and 6.7 GHz class II CH3OH masers, indicative of undergoing active accretion. We found 28 hot cores with COM emission among 68 continuum peaks at 1.3 mm and specified 10 hot cores associated with 6.7 GHz class II CH3OH masers. Up to 19 COMs are identified including oxygen- and nitrogen-bearing molecules and their isotopologues in cores. The derived abundances show a good agreement with those from other low- and high-mass star-forming regions, implying that the COM chemistry is predominantly set by the ice chemistry in the prestellar core stage. One clear trend is that the COM detection rate steeply grows with the gas column density, which can be attributed to the efficient formation of COMs in dense cores. In addition, cores associated with a 6.7 GHz class II CH3OH maser tend to be enriched with COMs. Finally, our results suggest that the enhanced abundances of several molecules in our hot cores could be originated by the active accretion as well as different physical conditions of cores.Y