73 research outputs found

    Now You Can Take It with You: Effects of Occupational Credential Recognition on Labor Market Outcomes

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    Occupational credentials are typically not portable across geography. Using policy reforms by U.S. states, we show that the limited portability of occupational licenses constrains labor market activity and geographic mobility of licensed individuals. After states implement universal recognition, a policy that allows individuals with occupational licenses issued by other states to work without repeating a costly relicensing procedure, we find that the employment ratio increases by 0.98 percentage points among licensed individuals in the sample relative to unlicensed individuals. The employment effect is co-driven by additional labor market participation and a reduction in unemployment after the policy. With the employment effect, we also find some evidence of a decline in hourly wages among licensed individuals after the policy. Regarding geographic mobility, we show that migration into states with universal recognition increased by 0.77 percentage points or 48.4% among individuals with low portability licenses. Our findings suggest that universal recognition improves license portability and labor market efficiency

    Anti-Skin Aging Effect of Syriacusins from Hibiscus Syriacus on Ultraviolet-Irradiated Human Dermal Fibroblast Cells

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    Abstract -Photosensitized peroxidation of membrane lipids has been implicated in skin pathologies such as phototoxicity and premature aging. We have previously reported that syriacusin compounds isolated from Hibiscus Syriacus inhibited lipid peroxidation. Here, we investigated whether syriacusins could be effective inhibitor to skin aging using ultraviolet-irradiated human dermal fibroblast cells (HDFCs). Syriacusins A, B, and C inhibit the activity of human neutrophil elastase (HNE), a serine protease to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins including elastin, with IC50s of 8.0, 5.2, and 6.1 μM, respectively. No changes in cell viability were detected by syriacusins A and B in UV-B (10 mJ/cm 2 ) irradiated HDFCs. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression in HDFCs was increased by UV-B irradiation. MMP-1 expression in UV-B irradiated HDFCs was decreased by 10 μM and 20 μM syriacusin A to 50% and 20% of untreated control, respectively. Syriacusin B treated with 20 μM reduced MMP-1 expression in UV-B irradiated HDFCs to 60% of untreated control. Syriacusin A also inhibited MMP-2 expression accompanying the increase of type-I pro-collagen in UV-B irradiated HDFCs. These results demonstrate that syriacusin A could be a more effective compound to inhibit skin aging caused by UV irradiation. It suggests that syriacusins A and B might be developed as possible agents to treat or prevent skin aging

    Anterior Insular-nucleus Accumbens Pathway Controls Refeeding-induced Analgesia under Chronic Inflammatory Pain Condition

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    © 2022 IBROFeeding behaviors are closely associated with chronic pain in adult rodents. Our recent study revealed that 2 h refeeding after 24 h fasting (i.e., refeeding) attenuates pain behavior under chronic inflammatory pain conditions. However, while brain circuits mediating fasting-induced analgesia have been identified, the underlying mechanism of refeeding-induced analgesia is still elusive. Herein, we demonstrate that the neural activities in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcS) and anterior insular cortex (aIC) were increased in a modified Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced chronic inflammatory pain condition, which was reversed by refeeding. We also found that refeeding reduced the enhanced excitability of aICCaMKII–NAcSD2R projecting neurons in this CFA model. Besides, chemogenetic inhibition of aICCaMKII–NAcSD2R neural circuit suppressed chronic pain behavior while activation of this circuit reversed refeeding-induced analgesia. Thus, the present study suggests that aICCaMKII–NAcSD2R neural circuit mediates refeeding-induced analgesia, thereby serving as a potential therapeutic target to manage chronic pain.N

    SELF-ASSEMBLED NANOCHAMBER ARRAYS FOR in-situ TEM OBSERVATION OF LIQUID-PHASE SAMPLES

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    This work presents a highly-ordered array of nanoscale chambers, capable of encapsulating liquid samples for TEM (transmission electron microscopy) imaging. The present nanochambers arc formed with two layers of free-standing graphene and self-assembled nanopores in an A AO (anodic aluminum oxide) membrane, which improve a transparency for electron beam and uniformities in chamber sizes/distributions. respectively. We envision that the present work will enable us to efficiently observe nanoscale processes in liquid with high-resolution TEM.N

    The selected flavonol glycoside derived from Sophorae Flos improves glucose uptake and inhibits adipocyte differentiation via activation AMPK in 3T3-L1 cells

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    Ministry of Education, Science and Technology [KOSEF2009-007-4808]Among nine flavonols (1-9) obtained from Sophorae Flos, we first isolated compounds 4, 5, 8, and 9. These isolates (1-9) were evaluated for the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC. Administered at 10 mu M, 9 possessed high potent activity. Compound 9 displayed a dose-dependent stimulation of glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells, and this increase was obviously attenuated by compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. In addition, 9 also phosphorylated AMPK and its downstream substrate ACC in 3T3-L1 cells in a time-and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, we discovered that compound C inhibits 9-stimulated ACC phosphorylation and motivated the 9-inhibited C/EBP alpha and PPAR gamma, and FAS gene expression, significantly. These results revealed the role of the AMPK downstream signaling pathway in 9-improved glucose metabolism in 3T3-L1 cells and 9-inhibited adipocyte differentiation. Differentiation was investigated by Oil Red O staining activity after 9 administration (0-20 mu M) in 6 days. Compound 9 decreased mean droplet size in a dose-dependent manner. The results revealed that 9 blocked adipogenic conversion in 3T3-L1 cells together with several significant downregulating adipocyte-specific transcription factors, including PPAR gamma, C/EBP alpha, and SREBP1. It also reduced FAS gene expression in a dose-dependent manner, which is crucial for adipogenesis in vitro. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

    A Large‐Scale Array of Ordered Graphene‐Sandwiched Chambers for Quantitative Liquid‐Phase Transmission Electron Microscopy

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    © 2020 Wiley-VCH GmbH. Liquid-phase transmission electron microscopy (TEM) offers a real-time microscopic observation of the nanometer scale for understanding the underlying mechanisms of the growth, etching, and interactions of colloidal nanoparticles. Despite such unique capability and potential application in diverse fields of analytical chemistry, liquid-phase TEM studies rely on information obtained from the limited number of observed events. In this work, a novel liquid cell with a large-scale array of highly ordered nanochambers is constructed by sandwiching an anodic aluminum oxide membrane between graphene sheets. TEM analysis of colloidal gold nanoparticles dispersed in the liquid is conducted, employing the fabricated nanochamber array, to demonstrate the potential of the nanochamber array in quantitative liquid-phase TEM. The independent TEM observations in the multiple nanochambers confirm that the monomer attachment and coalescence processes universally govern the overall growth of nanoparticles, although individual nanoparticles follow different growth trajectories11sciescopu
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