1,769 research outputs found

    Remote event analyses of LOPES-10

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    National identification, endorsement of acculturation ideologies and prejudice: The impact of perceived threat of immigration

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    This paper examines how the perceived threat of immigration affects the links between national identification, endorsement of assimilation or multiculturalism, and prejudice against immigrants in France. One hundred thirty-five French undergraduates completed a questionnaire measuring these factors. Path analysis showed that higher national identification increased perception of immigrants as a threat, which in turn predicted increased endorsement of assimilation for immigrants. The link between endorsement of assimilation and prejudice was not significant. In contrast, lower national identification decreased perception of immigrants as a threat and, in turn, increased endorsement of multiculturalism and reduced levels of prejudice. An alternative model specifying perception of threat as an outcome of preferences for multiculturalism or assimilation did not fit the data well. Results suggest that perceived threat from immigration is the key factor that guides the preferences of the majority group for acculturation ideologies and, through these preferences, shapes intergroup attitudes

    Noninvasive Evaluation of Microcirculation under Normal and Pathological Conditions Using Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography (CEUS)

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    The present chapter highlights the most important information about microcirculation and its evaluation using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS). In the beginning it outlines some general considerations about microcirculation, together with its morphological and physiological particularities under normal and pathological circumstances. The ultrasonographic (US) evaluation of vascularity is based on the Doppler technique and the harmonic technique using contrast agents. Then it presents briefly the Doppler ultrasound (DUS) and discusses its most important current and emerging indications. CEUS is presented extensively, covering the fundamentals of sonographic contrast agents, harmonic imaging and quantification techniques. A special focus is placed not only on the current and emerging indications of CEUS but also on the advantages and limitations of the method. This chapter also incorporates information about experimental CEUS applications and future perspectives. CEUS is the recommended US method for the characterization of microcirculation. The results of the examination are displayed in real-time, under the eyes of the examiner, while the quantitative assessment of the contrast agent kinetics parameters is easy to perform. This method allows a precise definition of the healthy or pathologic state of an organ and the follow-up of treatment response

    Breaking bad news in the era of artificial intelligence and algorithmic medicine: an exploration of disclosure and its ethical justification using the hedonic calculus

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    An appropriate ethical framework around the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in healthcare has become a key desirable with the increasingly widespread deployment of this technology. Advances in AI hold the promise of improving the precision of outcome prediction at the level of the individual. However, the addition of these technologies to patient–clinician interactions, as with any complex human interaction, has potential pitfalls. While physicians have always had to carefully consider the ethical background and implications of their actions, detailed deliberations around fast-moving technological progress may not have kept up. We use a common but key challenge in healthcare interactions, the disclosure of bad news (likely imminent death), to illustrate how the philosophical framework of the 'Felicific Calculus' developed in the eighteenth century by Jeremy Bentham, may have a timely quasi-quantitative application in the age of AI. We show how this ethical algorithm can be used to assess, across seven mutually exclusive and exhaustive domains, whether an AI-supported action can be morally justified
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