122 research outputs found

    Entrepreneurial Intention of Saudi Women in the Covid-19 Pandemic Era: The Role of Personality Traits

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    Purpose: This study examines the relation between personality traits and entrepreneurial intention among Saudi women during the COVID-19 pandemic era (c. 2020-2022).   Theoretical framework: Previous studies indicate that personality traits can stimulate entrepreneurial intention (EI). This study examines the relationships between personal traits in terms of three major dimensions: risk-taking (RT), need for achievement (NfA), locus of control (LoC),  and EI.   Design/methodology/approach:  This study applied a quantitative research method. A total of 919 electronic questionnaires were received from Saudi women via non-probability sampling using emails and social media.   Findings:   The results showed that the studied personality traits (LoC, NfA, and RT) can positively affect entrepreneurial intention of Saudi women.   Research, Practical & Social implications: Entrepreneurship has attracted research interest due to its great role in development and economic growth. Therefore, the study of the factors that stimulate people to become entrepreneurs has been of a great interest to many researchers. The findings of this study provide insights about the mechanisms of promoting female entrepreneurial intention in Saudi Arabia.   Originality/value:  Few studies have examined personality traits, including LoC, NfA, and RT as determinants of EI. The current study addresses this research gap by examining the relationship between these personality traits and entrepreneurial intention among Saudi women during the COVID-19 pandemic era in Saudi Arabia

    Factors Associated with Periodontitis in Younger Individuals: A Scoping Review

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    Periodontitis is a disease that affects many young adults, and if left untreated, it can have lasting and permanent effects on an individual’s oral health. The purpose of this scoping review was to review the recent literature to identify factors that place young individuals at risk of stage II or III periodontitis. Using the PRISMA guidelines for scoping reviews, three databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed human studies published in English that investigated risk factors associated with stage II and/or III periodontitis in individuals less than 40 years of age. This review excluded abstracts, literature reviews, including narrative, scoping, and systematic reviews and meta-analyses, conference proceedings, letters to the editor, and editorials. The authors then extracted data from the relevant studies using a predefined form to summarize the aims, design, results, risk factors examined, and the type and severity of periodontitis. Among a total of 2676 articles screened, only three articles met the review’s inclusion criteria. Of these articles, one was a longitudinal case-control study and two were cross-sectional studies. Identified risk factors associated with stage II or III periodontitis included self-reported bleeding when brushing, low bone mineral density, being overweight, and smoking in young adults. Of note, only three studies met the inclusion criteria, suggesting a gap in the research literature

    Severe Congenital Heart Defects and Cerebral Palsy

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    Objective: To report the prevalence of cerebral palsy (CP) in children with severe congenital heart defects (sCHD) and the outcome/severity of the CP. Methods: Population-based, data linkage study between CP and congenital anomaly registers in Europe and Australia. The EUROCAT definition of severe CHD (sCHD) was used. Linked data from 4 regions in Europe and 2 in Australia were included. All children born in the regions from 1991 through 2009 diagnosed with CP and/or sCHD were included. Linkage was completed locally. Deidentified linked data were pooled for analyses. Results:The study sample included 4989 children with CP and 3684 children with sCHD. The total number of livebirths in the population was 1 734 612. The prevalence of CP was 2.9 per 1000 births (95% CI, 2.8-3.0) and the prevalence of sCHD was 2.1 per 1000 births (95% CI, 2.1-2.2). Of children with sCHD, 1.5% (n = 57) had a diagnosis of CP, of which 35 (61%) children had prenatally or perinatally acquired CP (resulting from a brain injury at £28 days of life) and 22 (39%) children had a postneonatal cause (a brain injury between 28 days and 2 years). Children with CP and sCHD more often had unilateral spastic CP and more intellectual impairments than children with CP without congenital anomalies.Conclusions: In high-income countries, the proportion of children with CP is much higher in children with sCHD than in the background population. The severity of disease in children with CP and sCHD is milder compared with children with CP without congenital anomaliesFunding support received for the overarching Comprehensive CA-CP Study: the Cerebral Palsy Alliance Research Foundation (The Comprehensive CA-CP Study PG1215 and PG2816 and salary support from Cerebral Palsy Alliance Research Foundation (S.G., S.M., H.S.S., N.B.).info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Global, regional, and national burden of chronic kidney disease, 1990‚Äď2017 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

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    Background Health system planning requires careful assessment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) epidemiology, but data for morbidity and mortality of this disease are scarce or non-existent in many countries. We estimated the global, regional, and national burden of CKD, as well as the burden of cardiovascular disease and gout attributable to impaired kidney function, for the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017. We use the term CKD to refer to the morbidity and mortality that can be directly attributed to all stages of CKD, and we use the term impaired kidney function to refer to the additional risk of CKD from cardiovascular disease and gout. Methods The main data sources we used were published literature, vital registration systems, end-stage kidney disease registries, and household surveys. Estimates of CKD burden were produced using a Cause of Death Ensemble model and a Bayesian meta-regression analytical tool, and included incidence, prevalence, years lived with disability, mortality, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). A comparative risk assessment approach was used to estimate the proportion of cardiovascular diseases and gout burden attributable to impaired kidney function. Findings Globally, in 2017, 1¬∑2 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1¬∑2 to 1¬∑3) people died from CKD. The global all-age mortality rate from CKD increased 41¬∑5% (95% UI 35¬∑2 to 46¬∑5) between 1990 and 2017, although there was no significant change in the age-standardised mortality rate (2¬∑8%, ‚ąí1¬∑5 to 6¬∑3). In 2017, 697¬∑5 million (95% UI 649¬∑2 to 752¬∑0) cases of all-stage CKD were recorded, for a global prevalence of 9¬∑1% (8¬∑5 to 9¬∑8). The global all-age prevalence of CKD increased 29¬∑3% (95% UI 26¬∑4 to 32¬∑6) since 1990, whereas the age-standardised prevalence remained stable (1¬∑2%, ‚ąí1¬∑1 to 3¬∑5). CKD resulted in 35¬∑8 million (95% UI 33¬∑7 to 38¬∑0) DALYs in 2017, with diabetic nephropathy accounting for almost a third of DALYs. Most of the burden of CKD was concentrated in the three lowest quintiles of Socio-demographic Index (SDI). In several regions, particularly Oceania, sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America, the burden of CKD was much higher than expected for the level of development, whereas the disease burden in western, eastern, and central sub-Saharan Africa, east Asia, south Asia, central and eastern Europe, Australasia, and western Europe was lower than expected. 1¬∑4 million (95% UI 1¬∑2 to 1¬∑6) cardiovascular disease-related deaths and 25¬∑3 million (22¬∑2 to 28¬∑9) cardiovascular disease DALYs were attributable to impaired kidney function. Interpretation Kidney disease has a major effect on global health, both as a direct cause of global morbidity and mortality and as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. CKD is largely preventable and treatable and deserves greater attention in global health policy decision making, particularly in locations with low and middle SDI

    Early Intervention for Children Aged 0 to 2 Years With or at High Risk of Cerebral Palsy International Clinical Practice Guideline Based on Systematic Reviews:International Clinical Practice Guideline Based on Systematic Reviews

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    IMPORTANCE: Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common childhood physical disability. Early intervention for children younger than 2 years with or at risk of CP is critical. Now that an evidence-based guideline for early accurate diagnosis of CP exists, there is a need to summarize effective, CP-specific early intervention and conduct new trials that harness plasticity to improve function and increase participation. Our recommendations apply primarily to children at high risk of CP or with a diagnosis of CP, aged 0 to 2 years. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the best available evidence about CP-specific early interventions across 9 domains promoting motor function, cognitive skills, communication, eating and drinking, vision, sleep, managing muscle tone, musculoskeletal health, and parental support. EVIDENCE REVIEW: The literature was systematically searched for the best available evidence for intervention for children aged 0 to 2 years at high risk of or with CP. Databases included CINAHL, Cochrane, Embase, MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and Scopus. Systematic reviews and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were appraised by A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) or Cochrane Risk of Bias tools. Recommendations were formed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework and reported according to the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research, and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument. FINDINGS: Sixteen systematic reviews and 27 RCTs met inclusion criteria. Quality varied. Three best-practice principles were supported for the 9 domains: (1) immediate referral for intervention after a diagnosis of high risk of CP, (2) building parental capacity for attachment, and (3) parental goal-setting at the commencement of intervention. Twenty-eight recommendations (24 for and 4 against) specific to the 9 domains are supported with key evidence: motor function (4 recommendations), cognitive skills (2), communication (7), eating and drinking (2), vision (4), sleep (7), tone (1), musculoskeletal health (2), and parent support (5). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: When a child meets the criteria of high risk of CP, intervention should start as soon as possible. Parents want an early diagnosis and treatment and support implementation as soon as possible. Early intervention builds on a critical developmental time for plasticity of developing systems. Referrals for intervention across the 9 domains should be specific as per recommendations in this guideline

    Public health utility of cause of death data : applying empirical algorithms to improve data quality

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    Background: Accurate, comprehensive, cause-specific mortality estimates are crucial for informing public health decision making worldwide. Incorrectly or vaguely assigned deaths, defined as garbage-coded deaths, mask the true cause distribution. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study has developed methods to create comparable, timely, cause-specific mortality estimates; an impactful data processing method is the reallocation of garbage-coded deaths to a plausible underlying cause of death. We identify the pattern of garbage-coded deaths in the world and present the methods used to determine their redistribution to generate more plausible cause of death assignments. Methods: We describe the methods developed for the GBD 2019 study and subsequent iterations to redistribute garbage-coded deaths in vital registration data to plausible underlying causes. These methods include analysis of multiple cause data, negative correlation, impairment, and proportional redistribution. We classify garbage codes into classes according to the level of specificity of the reported cause of death (CoD) and capture trends in the global pattern of proportion of garbage-coded deaths, disaggregated by these classes, and the relationship between this proportion and the Socio-Demographic Index. We examine the relative importance of the top four garbage codes by age and sex and demonstrate the impact of redistribution on the annual GBD CoD rankings. Results: The proportion of least-specific (class 1 and 2) garbage-coded deaths ranged from 3.7% of all vital registration deaths to 67.3% in 2015, and the age-standardized proportion had an overall negative association with the Socio Demographic Index. When broken down by age and sex, the category for unspecified lower respiratory infections was responsible for nearly 30% of garbage-coded deaths in those under 1 year of age for both sexes, representing the largest proportion of garbage codes for that age group. We show how the cause distribution by number of deaths changes before and after redistribution for four countries: Brazil, the United States, Japan, and France, highlighting the necessity of accounting for garbage-coded deaths in the GBD

    Global, regional, and national burden of tuberculosis, 1990‚Äď2016: results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors 2016 Study

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    Background Although a preventable and treatable disease, tuberculosis causes more than a million deaths each year. As countries work towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target to end the tuberculosis epidemic by 2030, robust assessments of the levels and trends of the burden of tuberculosis are crucial to inform policy and programme decision making. We assessed the levels and trends in the fatal and non-fatal burden of tuberculosis by drug resistance and HIV status for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016. Methods We analysed 15‚Äą943 site-years of vital registration data, 1710 site-years of verbal autopsy data, 764 site-years of sample-based vital registration data, and 361 site-years of mortality surveillance data to estimate mortality due to tuberculosis using the Cause of Death Ensemble model. We analysed all available data sources, including annual case notifications, prevalence surveys, population-based tuberculin surveys, and estimated tuberculosis cause-specific mortality to generate internally consistent estimates of incidence, prevalence, and mortality using DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool. We assessed how the burden of tuberculosis differed from the burden predicted by the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income per capita, average years of schooling, and total fertility rate. Findings Globally in 2016, among HIV-negative individuals, the number of incident cases of tuberculosis was 9¬∑02 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 8¬∑05‚Äď10¬∑16) and the number of tuberculosis deaths was 1¬∑21 million (1¬∑16‚Äď1¬∑27). Among HIV-positive individuals, the number of incident cases was 1¬∑40 million (1¬∑01‚Äď1¬∑89) and the number of tuberculosis deaths was 0¬∑24 million (0¬∑16‚Äď0¬∑31). Globally, among HIV-negative individuals the age-standardised incidence of tuberculosis decreased annually at a slower rate (‚Äď1¬∑3% [‚Äď1¬∑5 to ‚ąí1¬∑2]) than mortality did (‚Äď4¬∑5% [‚Äď5¬∑0 to ‚ąí4¬∑1]) from 2006 to 2016. Among HIV-positive individuals during the same period, the rate of change in annualised age-standardised incidence was ‚ąí4¬∑0% (‚Äď4¬∑5 to ‚ąí3¬∑7) and mortality was ‚ąí8¬∑9% (‚Äď9¬∑5 to ‚ąí8¬∑4). Several regions had higher rates of age-standardised incidence and mortality than expected on the basis of their SDI levels in 2016. For drug-susceptible tuberculosis, the highest observed-to-expected ratios were in southern sub-Saharan Africa (13¬∑7 for incidence and 14¬∑9 for mortality), and the lowest ratios were in high-income North America (0¬∑4 for incidence) and Oceania (0¬∑3 for mortality). For multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, eastern Europe had the highest observed-to-expected ratios (67¬∑3 for incidence and 73¬∑0 for mortality), and high-income North America had the lowest ratios (0¬∑4 for incidence and 0¬∑5 for mortality). Interpretation If current trends in tuberculosis incidence continue, few countries are likely to meet the SDG target to end the tuberculosis epidemic by 2030. Progress needs to be accelerated by improving the quality of and access to tuberculosis diagnosis and care, by developing new tools, scaling up interventions to prevent risk factors for tuberculosis, and integrating control programmes for tuberculosis and HIV

    Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 328 diseases and injuries for 195 countries, 1990‚Äď2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

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    As mortality rates decline, life expectancy increases, and populations age, non-fatal outcomes of diseases and injuries are becoming a larger component of the global burden of disease. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of prevalence, incidence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 328 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016

    Measuring progress and projecting attainment on the basis of past trends of the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries: an analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

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    The UN‚Äôs Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are grounded in the global ambition of ‚Äúleaving no one behind‚ÄĚ. Understanding today‚Äôs gains and gaps for the health-related SDGs is essential for decision makers as they aim to improve the health of populations. As part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016), we measured 37 of the 50 health-related SDG indicators over the period 1990‚Äď2016 for 188 countries, and then on the basis of these past trends, we projected indicators to 2030
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