913 research outputs found

    Cutting out continuations

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    In the field of program transformation, one often transforms programs into continuation-passing style to make their flow of control explicit, and then immediately removes the resulting continuations using defunctionalisation to make the programs first-order. In this article, we show how these two transformations can be fused together into a single transformation step that cuts out the need to first introduce and then eliminate continuations. Our approach is calculational, uses standard equational reasoning techniques, and is widely applicable

    Capturing accelerometer outputs in healthy volunteers under normal and simulated-pathological conditions using ML classifiers

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    Wearable devices offer a possible solution for acquiring objective measurements of physical activity. Most current algorithms are derived using data from healthy volunteers. It is unclear whether such algorithms are suitable in specific clinical scenarios, such as when an individual has altered gait. We hypothesized that algorithms trained on healthy population will result in less accurate results when tested in individuals with altered gait. We further hypothesized that algorithms trained on simulated-pathological gait would prove better at classifying abnormal activity.We studied healthy volunteers to assess whether activity classification accuracy differed for those with healthy and simulated-pathological conditions. Healthy participants (n=30) were recruited from the University of Leeds to perform nine predefined activities under healthy and simulated-pathological conditions. Activities were captured using a wrist-worn MOX accelerometer (Maastricht Instruments, NL). Data were analyzed based on the Activity-Recognition-Chain process. We trained a Neural-Network, Random-Forests, k-Nearest-Neighbors (k-NN), Support-Vector-Machines (SVM) and Naive Bayes models to classify activity. Algorithms were trained four times; once with 'healthy' data, and once with 'simulated-pathological data' for each of activity-type and activity-task classification. In activity-type instances, the SVM provided the best results; the accuracy was 98.4% when the algorithm was trained and then tested with unseen data from the same group of healthy individuals. Accuracy dropped to 52.8% when tested on simulated-pathological data. When the model was retrained with simulated-pathological data, prediction accuracy for the corresponding test set was 96.7%. Algorithms developed on healthy data are less accurate for pathological conditions. When evaluating pathological conditions, classifier algorithms developed using data from a target sub-population can restore accuracy to above 95%.Clinical Relevance - This method remotely establishes health-related data of objective outcome measures of activities of daily living

    Preventing weed spread: a survey of lifestyle and commercial landholders about Nassella trichotoma in the Northern Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia

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    Nassella trichotoma (Nees) Hack. ex Arechav. (common name, serrated tussock) occupies large areas of south-eastern Australia and has considerable scope for expansion in the Northern Tablelands of New South Wales. This highly invasive grass reduces pasture productivity and has the potential to severely affect the region’s economy by decreasing the livestock carrying capacity of grazing land. Other potential consequences of this invasion include increased fuel loads and displacement of native plants, thereby threatening biodiversity. Rural property owners in the Northern Tablelands were sent a mail questionnaire that examined use of measures to prevent new outbreaks of the weed. The questionnaire was sent to professional farmers as well as lifestyle farmers (owners of rural residential blocks and hobby farms) and 271 responses were obtained (a response rate of 18%). Key findings were respondents’ limited capacity to detect N. trichotoma, and low adoption of precautions to control seed spread by livestock, vehicles and machinery. This was particularly the case among lifestyle farmers. There have been considerable recent changes to biosecurity governance arrangements in New South Wales, and now is an ideal time for regulators and information providers to consider how to foster regional communities’ engagement in biosecurity, including the adoption of measures that have the capacity to curtail the spread of N. trichotoma

    Implications of non-feasible transformations among icosahedral hh orbitals

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    The symmetric group S6S_6 that permutes the six five-fold axes of an icosahedron is introduced to go beyond the simple rotations that constitute the icosahedral group II. Owing to the correspondence hdh\leftrightarrow d, the calculation of the Coulomb energies for the icosahedral configurations hNh^N based on the sequence O(5)S6S5IO(5) \supset S_6 \supset S_5 \supset I can be brought to bear on Racah's classic theory for the atomic d shell based on SO(5)SOL(3)ISO(5) \supset SO_L(3) \supset I. Among the elements of S6S_6 is the kaleidoscope operator K{\cal K} that rotates the weight space of SO(5) by π/2\pi/2. Its use explains some puzzling degeneracies in d^3 involving the spectroscopic terms ^2P, ^2F, ^2G and ^2H.Comment: Tentatively scheduled to appear in Physical Preview Letters Apr 5, 99. Revtex, 1 ps figur

    Rehabilitation for people wearing offloading devices for diabetes-related foot ulcers : a systematic review and meta-analyses

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    Background: Offloading devices improve healing of diabetes-related foot ulcers (DFUs) but they can limit mobilisation. Rehabilitation during or after removal of these devices may promote physical activity in a population at risk of poor health outcomes for which inactivity is a reversible risk factor. Methods: This systematic review examined the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions to promote physical activity during and/or after wearing an offloading device to treat diabetes-related foot ulcers. Searches using MESH terms and free-text combinations: ‘foot ulcer’, ‘diabetic foot’, ‘casts, surgical’, ‘orthotic devices’ were applied to MEDLINE, Embase, The Cochrane Library and clinical trial registers for randomised and observational studies published to September 2022. Methodological quality assessment of included studies was undertaken using the Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB 2.0) and Risk of Bias In Non-randomised studies of Interventions (ROBINS-I) tools. Results: Of 3332 records identified, eight studies (441 participants), four clinical trials and four cohort studies, were included. None delivered or tested a structured rehabilitation programme, but all reported physical activity outcomes during or after device use. People wearing non-removable total contact casts were less active than those wearing devices (SMD -0.45; 95% CI − 0.87 to − 0.04; p = 0.03; I2 56%; 4 trials). Diabetes-related foot ulcers in people wearing total contact casts were more likely to heal compared to removable devices at 12 weeks (OR 2.69; 95% CI 0.97 to 7.45; p = 0.06; I2 = 64%; 4 trials) and 20 weeks (OR 2.35; 95% CI 0.95 to 5.82; p = 0.07; I2 = 65%; 4 trials). Conclusions: Despite physical activity being low throughout off-loading treatment, no studies have specifically tested rehabilitation. There is a need to investigate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of rehabilitation programmes in this population. High quality trials are needed to provide robust evidence to support to rehabilitation after DFU treatment

    String cosmology from Poisson-Lie T-dual sigma models on supermanifolds

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    We generalize the formulation of Poisson-Lie T-dual sigma models on manifolds to supermanifolds. In this respect, we formulate 1+1 dimensional string cosmological models on the Lie supergroup C^3 and its dual (A_1,1 + 2A)^0_(1,0,0), which are coupled to two fermionic fields. Then, we solve the equations of motion of the models and show that there is a essential singularity for the metric of the original model and its dual.Comment: 17 pages, Appendix and three references have adde

    Data handling with SAM and art at the NOνA experiment

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    During operations, NOvA produces between 5,000 and 7,000 raw files per day with peaks in excess of 12,000. These files must be processed in several stages to produce fully calibrated and reconstructed analysis files. In addition, many simulated neutrino interactions must be produced and processed through the same stages as data. To accommodate the large volume of data and Monte Carlo, production must be possible both on the Fermilab grid and on off-site farms, such as the ones accessible through the Open Science Grid. To handle the challenge of cataloging these files and to facilitate their off-line processing, we have adopted the SAM system developed at Fermilab. SAM indexes files according to metadata, keeps track of each file's physical locations, provides dataset management facilities, and facilitates data transfer to off-site grids. To integrate SAM with Fermilab's art software framework and the NOvA production workflow, we have developed methods to embed metadata into our configuration files, art files, and standalone ROOT files. A module in the art framework propagates the embedded information from configuration files into art files, and from input art files to output art files, allowing us to maintain a complete processing history within our files. Embedding metadata in configuration files also allows configuration files indexed in SAM to be used as inputs to Monte Carlo production jobs. Further, SAM keeps track of the input files used to create each output file. Parentage information enables the construction of self-draining datasets which have become the primary production paradigm used at NOvA. In this paper we will present an overview of SAM at NOvA and how it has transformed the file production framework used by the experiment

    Sex Differences in Cerebral Small Vessel Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Background: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common cause of stroke, mild cognitive impairment, dementia and physical impairments. Differences in SVD incidence or severity between males and females are unknown. We assessed sex differences in SVD by assessing the male-to-female ratio (M:F) of recruited participants and incidence of SVD, risk factor presence, distribution, and severity of SVD features. Methods: We assessed four recent systematic reviews on SVD and performed a supplementary search of MEDLINE to identify studies reporting M:F ratio in covert, stroke, or cognitive SVD presentations (registered protocol: CRD42020193995). We meta-analyzed differences in sex ratios across time, countries, SVD severity and presentations, age and risk factors for SVD. Results: Amongst 123 relevant studies (n = 36,910 participants) including 53 community-based, 67 hospital-based and three mixed studies published between 1989 and 2020, more males were recruited in hospital-based than in community-based studies [M:F = 1.16 (0.70) vs. M:F = 0.79 (0.35), respectively; p < 0.001]. More males had moderate to severe SVD [M:F = 1.08 (0.81) vs. M:F = 0.82 (0.47) in healthy to mild SVD; p < 0.001], and stroke presentations where M:F was 1.67 (0.53). M:F did not differ for recent (2015–2020) vs. pre-2015 publications, by geographical region, or age. There were insufficient sex-stratified data to explore M:F and risk factors for SVD. Conclusions: Our results highlight differences in male-to-female ratios in SVD severity and amongst those presenting with stroke that have important clinical and translational implications. Future SVD research should report participant demographics, risk factors and outcomes separately for males and females. Systematic Review Registration: [PROSPERO], identifier [CRD42020193995]

    Improving the Information Security Model by using TFI

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    In the context of information systems and information technology, information security is a concept that is becoming widely used. The European Network of Excellence INTEROP classifies information security as a nonfunctional aspect of interoperability and as such it is an integral part of the design process for interoperable systems. In the last decade, academics and practitioners have shown their interest in information security, for example by developing security models for evaluating products and setting up security specifications in order to safeguard the confidentiality, integrity, availability and accountability of data. Earlier research has shown that measures to achieve information security in the administrative or organisational level are missing or inadequate. Therefore, there is a need to improve information security models by including vital elements of information security. In this paper, we introduce a holistic view of information security based on a Swedish model combined with a literature survey. Furthermore we suggest extending this model using concepts based on semiotic theory and adopting the view of an information system as constituted of the technical, formal and informal (TFI) parts. The aim is to increase the understanding of the information security domain in order to develop a well-founded theoretical framework, which can be used both in the analysis and the design phase of interoperable systems. Finally, we describe and apply the Information Security (InfoSec) model to the results of three different case studies in the healthcare domain. Limits of the model will be highlighted and an extension will be proposed.In the context of information systems and information technology, information security is a concept that is becoming widely used. The European Network of Excellence INTEROP classifies information security as a nonfunctional aspect of interoperability and as such it is an integral part of the design process for interoperable systems. In the last decade, academics and practitioners have shown their interest in information security, for example by developing security models for evaluating products and setting up security specifications in order to safeguard the confidentiality, integrity, availability and accountability of data. Earlier research has shown that measures to achieve information security in the administrative or organisational level are missing or inadequate. Therefore, there is a need to improve information security models by including vital elements of information security. In this paper, we introduce a holistic view of information security based on a Swedish model combined with a literature survey. Furthermore we suggest extending this model using concepts based on semiotic theory and adopting the view of an information system as constituted of the technical, formal and informal (TFI) parts. The aim is to increase the understanding of the information security domain in order to develop a well-founded theoretical framework, which can be used both in the analysis and the design phase of interoperable systems. Finally, we describe and apply the Information Security (InfoSec) model to the results of three different case studies in the healthcare domain. Limits of the model will be highlighted and an extension will be proposed.Monograph's chapter
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