292 research outputs found

    Exact Stochastic Mean-Field dynamics

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    The exact evolution of a system coupled to a complex environment can be described by a stochastic mean-field evolution of the reduced system density. The formalism developed in Ref. [D.Lacroix, Phys. Rev. E77, 041126 (2008)] is illustrated in the Caldeira-Leggett model where a harmonic oscillator is coupled to a bath of harmonic oscillators. Similar exact reformulation could be used to extend mean-field transport theories in Many-body systems and incorporate two-body correlations beyond the mean-field one. The connection between open quantum system and closed many-body problem is discussed.Comment: Proceedings series of Proceedings of "FUSION08: New Aspects of Heavy Ion Collisions near the Coulomb Barrier", September 22-26, 2008, Chicago, US

    Fusion at deep subbarrier energies: potential inversion revisited

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    For a single potential barrier, the barrier penetrability can be inverted based on the WKB approximation to yield the barrier thickness. We apply this method to heavy-ion fusion reactions at energies well below the Coulomb barrier and directly determine the inter-nucleus potential between the colliding nuclei. To this end, we assume that fusion cross sections at deep subbarrier energies are governed by the lowest barrier in the barrier distribution. The inverted inter-nucleus potentials for the 16^{16}O +144^{144}Sm and 16^{16}O +208^{208}Pb reactions show that they are much thicker than phenomenological potentials. We discuss a consequence of such thick potential by fitting the inverted potentials with the Bass function.Comment: 8 pages, 5 figures. Uses aipxfm.sty. A talk given at the FUSION08: New Aspects of Heavy Ion Collisions Near the Coulomb Barrier, September 22-26, 2008, Chicago, US

    Extraction of nucleus-nucleus potential and energy dissipation from dynamical mean-field theory

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    Nucleus-nucleus interaction potentials in heavy-ion fusion reactions are extracted from the microscopic time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory. When the center-of-mass energy is much higher than the Coulomb barrier energy, extracted potentials identify with the frozen density approximation. As the center-of-mass energy decreases to the Coulomb barrier energy, potentials become energy dependent. This dependence indicates dynamical reorganization of internal degrees of freedom and leads to a reduction of the "apparent" barrier. Including this effect leads to the Coulomb barrier energy very close to experimental one. Aspects of one-body energy dissipation extracted from the mean-field theory are discussed.Comment: 6 pages, 5 figures. Uses aipxfm.sty. A talk given at the FUSION08: New Aspects of Heavy Ion Collisions Near the Coulomb Barrier, September 22-26, 2008, Chicago, US

    Subsurface cosmogenic and radiogenic production of ^{42}Ar

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    Radioactive decays from ^{42}Ar and its progeny ^{42}K are potential background sources in large-scale liquid-argon-based neutrino and dark matter experiments. In the atmosphere, ^{42}Ar is produced primarily by cosmogenic activation on ^{40}Ar. The use of low radioactivity argon from cosmogenically shielded underground sources can expand the reach and sensitivity of liquid-argon-based rare event searches. We estimate ^{42}Ar production underground by nuclear reactions induced by natural radioactivity and cosmic-ray muon-induced interactions. At 3,000 mwe, ^{42}Ar production rate is 1.8E-3 atoms per ton of crust per year, 7 orders of magnitude smaller than the ^{39}Ar production rate at a similar depth in the crust. By comparing the calculated production rate of ^{42}Ar to that of ^{39}Ar for which the concentration has been measured in an underground gas sample, we estimate the activity of ^{42}Ar in gas extracted from 3,000 mwe depth to be less than 2 decays per ton of argon per year.Comment: 17 pages, 10 figure

    Coupled-Channels Approach for Dissipative Quantum Dynamics in Near-Barrier Collisions

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    A novel quantum dynamical model based on the dissipative quantum dynamics of open quantum systems is presented. It allows the treatment of both deep-inelastic processes and quantum tunneling (fusion) within a fully quantum mechanical coupled-channels approach. Model calculations show the transition from pure state (coherent) to mixed state (decoherent and dissipative) dynamics during a near-barrier nuclear collision. Energy dissipation, due to irreversible decay of giant-dipole excitations of the interacting nuclei, results in hindrance of quantum tunneling.Comment: 8 pages, 4 figures, Invited talk by A. Diaz-Torres at the FUSION08 Conference, Chicago, September 22-26, 2008, To appear in AIP Conference Proceeding

    Low-Background gamma counting at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility

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    The next generation of low-background physics experiments will require the use of materials with unprecedented radio-purity. A gamma-counting facility at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF) has been commissioned to perform initial screening of materials for radioactivity primarily from nuclides in the 238U and 232Th decay chains, 40K and cosmic-ray induced isotopes. The facility consists of two commercial low-background high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. A continuum background reduction better than a factor of 10 was achieved by going underground. This paper describes the facility, detector systems, analysis techniques and selected assay results.Comment: 7 pages, 7 figures. Submitted to NIM

    Mass Distributions Beyond TDHF

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    The mass distributions for giant dipole resonances in 32S and 132Sn decaying through particle emission and for deep-inelastic collisions between 16O nuclei have been investigated by implementing the Balian-Veneroni variational technique based upon a three-dimensional time-dependent Hartree-Fock code with realistic Skyrme interactions. The mass distributions obtained have been shown to be significantly larger than the standard TDHF results.Comment: 6 pages, 2 figures, Based on talk by J. M. A. Broomfield at the FUSION08 Conference, Chicago, September 22-26, 2008. Conference proceedings to be published by AI

    Scintillation efficiency measurement of Na recoils in NaI(Tl) below the DAMA/LIBRA energy threshold

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    The dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal depends on the NaI(Tl) scintillation efficiency of nuclear recoils. Previous measurements for Na recoils have large discrepancies, especially in the DAMA/LIBRA modulation energy region. We report a quenching effect measurement of Na recoils in NaI(Tl) from 3keVnr_{\text{nr}} to 52keVnr_{\text{nr}}, covering the whole DAMA/LIBRA energy region for light WIMP interpretations. By using a low-energy, pulsed neutron beam, a double time-of-flight technique, and pulse-shape discrimination methods, we obtained the most accurate measurement of this kind for NaI(Tl) to date. The results differ significantly from the DAMA reported values at low energies, but fall between the other previous measurements. We present the implications of the new quenching results for the dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal
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