859 research outputs found

    Development of a Cx46 Targeting Strategy for Cancer Stem Cells

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    Gap-junction-mediated cell-cell communication enables tumor cells to synchronize complex processes. We previously found that glioblastoma cancer stem cells (CSCs) express higher levels of the gap junction protein Cx46 compared to non-stem tumor cells (non-CSCs) and that this was necessary and sufficient for CSC maintenance. To understand the mechanism underlying this requirement, we use point mutants to disrupt specific functions of Cx46 and find that Cx46-mediated gap-junction coupling is critical for CSCs. To develop a Cx46 targeting strategy, we screen a clinically relevant small molecule library and identify clofazimine as an inhibitor of Cx46-specific cell-cell communication. Clofazimine attenuates proliferation, self-renewal, and tumor growth and synergizes with temozolomide to induce apoptosis. Although clofazimine does not cross the blood-brain barrier, the combination of clofazimine derivatives optimized for brain penetrance with standard-of-care therapies may target glioblastoma CSCs. Furthermore, these results demonstrate the importance of targeting cell-cell communication as an anti-cancer therapy

    TET2 mutations as a part of DNA dioxygenase deficiency in myelodysplastic syndromes

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    Decrease in DNA dioxygenase activity generated by TET2 gene family is crucial in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The general downregulation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) argues for a role of DNA demethylation in MDS beyond TET2 mutations, which albeit frequent, do not convey any prognostic significance. We investigated TETs expression to identify factors which can modulate the impact of mutations and thus 5-hmC levels on clinical phenotypes and prognosis of MDS patients. DNA/RNA-sequencing and 5-hmC data were collected from 1665 patients with MDS and 91 controls. Irrespective of mutations, a significant fraction of MDS patients exhibited lower TET2 expression, whereas 5-hmC levels were not uniformly decreased. In searching for factors explaining compensatory mechanisms, we discovered that TET3 was upregulated in MDS and inversely correlated with TET2 expression in wild type cases. Although TET2 was reduced across all age groups, TET3 levels were increased in a likely feedback mechanism induced by TET2 dysfunction. This inverse relationship of TET2 and TET3 expression also corresponded to the expression of L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase, involved in agonist/antagonist substrate metabolism. Importantly, elevated TET3 levels influ-enced the clinical phenotype of TET2 deficiency whereby the lack of compensation by TET3 (low TET3 expression) was associated with poor outcomes of TET2 mutant carriers

    Constraints on Higgs boson properties using WW∗(→ eνμν) jj production in 36.1fb-1 of √s=13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

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    This article presents the results of two studies of Higgs boson properties using the WW∗(→ eνμν) jj final state, based on a dataset corresponding to 36.1 fb - 1 of s=13 TeV proton–proton collisions recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. The first study targets Higgs boson production via gluon–gluon fusion and constrains the CP properties of the effective Higgs–gluon interaction. Using angular distributions and the overall rate, a value of tan (α) = 0.0 ± 0.4 (stat.) ± 0.3 (syst.) is obtained for the tangent of the mixing angle for CP-even and CP-odd contributions. The second study exploits the vector-boson fusion production mechanism to probe the Higgs boson couplings to longitudinally and transversely polarised W and Z bosons in both the production and the decay of the Higgs boson; these couplings have not been directly constrained previously. The polarisation-dependent coupling-strength scale factors are defined as the ratios of the measured polarisation-dependent coupling strengths to those predicted by the Standard Model, and are determined using rate and kinematic information to be aL=0.91-0.18+0.10(stat.)-0.17+0.09(syst.) and aT= 1.2 ± 0.4 (stat.)-0.3+0.2(syst.). These coupling strengths are translated into pseudo-observables, resulting in κVV=0.91-0.18+0.10(stat.)-0.17+0.09(syst.) and ϵVV=0.13-0.20+0.28 (stat.)-0.10+0.08(syst.). All results are consistent with the Standard Model predictions

    Search for resonant WZ production in the fully leptonic final state in proton–proton collisions at √s=13 TeV with the ATLAS detector