28 research outputs found

    Evaluation of the rock support system subjected to dynamic loads in Kiirunavaara

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    LKAB’s underground mine in Kiirunavaara has experienced an increasing seismic activity the last ten years. This seismic activity is caused by the stress redistribution resulting from the mining method of large-scale sublevel caving. The energy from the seismic events propagate in the rock mass as seismic waves. If one of these waves interacts with an excavation, it will be subjected to dynamic loads, and damage can potentially occur. Damage can be caused by different mechanisms depending on many factors such as pre-existing structures in the rock mass and the state of stress. To prevent these damages, LKAB has installed a rock support system for handling dynamic loads. This thesis has analysed available damage mapping reports, investigations, pictures, seismic data and history, in order to evaluate the function of the support system when subjected to dynamic loads. The conclusion of the analysis is that the support system is well designed, but there are areas of improvement. The main damage mechanisms are bulking without ejection and rockfall due to seismic shaking. Bulking with ejection and ejection due to seismic energy transfer were concluded to not yet be a problem in the Kiirunavaara mine. This result implies that an improved stiffness, static strength and yieldability are to be considered in order to decrease the amount of bulking. For rockfall due to seismic shaking, there are two main areas of improvement. The structural mapping has to be given higher priority, and it should provide direct support recommendations if needed. The second part is to increase the static strength of the system in order to survive rockfall due to seismic shaking. Since bulking with ejection and ejection due to seismic energy transfer are not yet considered significant problems, there is no need to improve the support system with respect to absorption of kinetic energy. The location of the damages in the drift profiles were also analysed, and it was concluded that a majority of the damages that occurred in the footwall drifts were located in the corner of the abutment facing the orebody. In the crosscuts, a majority of the damages occurred in the abutment and roof. Based on this, it is suggested that the support should be improved in the abutment and roof of the crosscuts, and in the abutment facing the ore of the footwall drifts

    Node detection using high-dimensional fuzzy parcellation applied to the insular cortex

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    Several functional connectivity approaches require the definition of a set of regions of interest (ROIs) that act as network nodes. Different methods have been developed to define these nodes and to derive their functional and effective connections, most of which are rather complex. Here we aim to propose a relatively simple ‚Äúone-step‚ÄĚ border detection and ROI estimation procedure employing the fuzzy c-mean clustering algorithm. To test this procedure and to explore insular connectivity beyond the two/three-region model currently proposed in the literature, we parcellated the insular cortex of 20 healthy right-handed volunteers scanned in a resting state. By employing a high-dimensional functional connectivity-based clustering process, we confirmed the two patterns of connectivity previously described. This method revealed a complex pattern of functional connectivity where the two previously detected insular clusters are subdivided into several other networks, some of which are not commonly associated with the insular cortex, such as the default mode network and parts of the dorsal attentional network. Furthermore, the detection of nodes was reliable, as demonstrated by the confirmative analysis performed on a replication group of subjects

    Gray matter alterations in chronic pain: A network-oriented meta-analytic approach

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    AbstractSeveral studies have attempted to characterize morphological brain changes due to chronic pain. Although it has repeatedly been suggested that longstanding pain induces gray matter modifications, there is still some controversy surrounding the direction of the change (increase or decrease in gray matter) and the role of psychological and psychiatric comorbidities. In this study, we propose a novel, network-oriented, meta-analytic approach to characterize morphological changes in chronic pain. We used network decomposition to investigate whether different kinds of chronic pain are associated with a common or specific set of altered networks. Representational similarity techniques, network decomposition and model-based clustering were employed: i) to verify the presence of a core set of brain areas commonly modified by chronic pain; ii) to investigate the involvement of these areas in a large-scale network perspective; iii) to study the relationship between altered networks and; iv) to find out whether chronic pain targets clusters of areas. Our results showed that chronic pain causes both core and pathology-specific gray matter alterations in large-scale networks. Common alterations were observed in the prefrontal regions, in the anterior insula, cingulate cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, periaqueductal gray, post- and pre-central gyri and inferior parietal lobule. We observed that the salience and attentional networks were targeted in a very similar way by different chronic pain pathologies. Conversely, alterations in the sensorimotor and attention circuits were differentially targeted by chronic pain pathologies. Moreover, model-based clustering revealed that chronic pain, in line with some neurodegenerative diseases, selectively targets some large-scale brain networks. Altogether these findings indicate that chronic pain can be better conceived and studied in a network perspective