2,267 research outputs found

    Comparison of the CAT-QoL and PedsQLTM instruments in measuring quality of life in amblyopia treatment: preliminary results

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    Background/Aims: The Child Amblyopia Treatment Questionnaire (CAT-QoL) is a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM), designed to assess the impact of amblyopia treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the psychometric properties of two PROMs; the CAT-QoL instrument and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQLTM), a generic pediatric PROM. This work was part of a wider project to develop a condition-specific PROM for children with amblyopia. Methods: Three hundred and forty-two participants were recruited in a UK multi-center study. Quality of life data was collected using the CAT-QoL and the PedsQLTM instruments. The psychometric performance of the CAT-QoL and PedsQLTM were examined in terms of acceptability, reliability, and validity. Results: Both instruments demonstrated good reliability (CAT-QoL Cronbach's α = 0.793; PedsQLTMα = 0.872). The convergent validity of the CAT-QoL and PedsQLTM instruments was tested by comparing the instruments to each other. There was a moderate correlation between the PedsQLTM and the CAT-QoL scores, and this relationship was statistically significant (rs = -0.517, p < .000). No statistical significance was found between the level of amblyopia severity and the mean PedsQLTM score (p = .420). Conclusion: It was possible to assess the impact of amblyopia treatment using the CAT-QoL and PedsQLTM instruments. The preliminary findings from this are not conclusive, and it is not possible to advocate the use of one questionnaire over another based upon psychometric performance demonstrated here. This may be due to the sample population, as there were limited numbers of participants with severe amblyopia. Both the CAT-QoL and PedsQLTM instruments were noted to have some issues with ceiling effects at an individual item level. The CAT-QoL and PedsQLTM were reliable (as determined by Cronbach's alpha). The PedsQLTM instrument was not able to discriminate between amblyopia severity groups (discriminant validity). Further research is required to formally assess the psychometric properties of the CAT-QoL questionnaire

    Psychometric evaluation of the German version of a social support scale of FAFHES (family functioning, family health and social support)

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    This is the peer reviewed version which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1111/scs.12700. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions.BACKGROUND: Family members often need to be supported in informal care of the elderly and desire to be involved into care planning and decision-making. Valid and reliable instruments are needed to measure how family members perceive the care and support they receive from nurses for older family members living at home. AIM: The purpose of this study was to translate the 20-item social support scale of the Family Functioning, Family Health and Social Support (FAFHES) questionnaire from English to German and test the validity and reliability of the scale among Swiss-German-speaking family caregivers of home-dwelling elderly people who receive home healthcare services. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to test the empirical and psychometric properties of the translated and culturally adapted version of the social support questionnaire. A factor analysis with the principal component analysis PCA was used to test construct validity. The internal consistency of items was measured with the Cronbach`s alpha coefficient. RESULTS: After a rigorous translation process the original 20-item questionnaire was adapted into a 19-item version and tested with family caregivers (n = 207) of home-dwelling elderly. Psychometric testing of the German version of the social support questionnaire revealed that the three factors - affirmation, affect and concrete aid - were congruent with the original questionnaire. The accounted variance was 79.5% and the internal consistency determined by the Cronbach's alpha was 0.973. CONCLUSION: The German version of the social support scale of the FAFHES questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument to assess family perceived support on three dimensions - affirmation, affect and concrete aid - received from nursing professionals. The questionnaire should be tested further in other German-speaking population

    Factor structure and psychometric properties of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) among Ghanaian adolescents

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    Purpose: There is little information about the reliability and validity of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) in Ghana. This study sought to examine the reliability and factor structure of the GHQ-12 in Ghanaian adolescents. Method: sHigh school students (N = 770) completed the GHQ-12 and the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ). Internal consistency, convergent validity and exploratory factor analysis were used. Results: A two factor structure, each with six items, was extracted. The total GHQ-12 had acceptable internal consistency and a generally high correlation with the ASQ subscales. Conclusion: The GHQ-12 can be used in Ghanaian samples, but more research is needed to confirm its factor structure

    Using Social Judgment Theory method to examine how experienced occupational therapy driver assessors use information to make fitness-to-drive recommendations

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    Introduction - As people with a range of disabilities strive to increase their community mobility, occupational therapy driver assessors are increasingly required to make complex recommendations regarding fitness-to-drive. However, very little is known about how therapists use information to make decisions. The aim of this study was to model how experienced occupational therapy driver assessors weight and combine information when making fitness-to-drive recommendations and establish their level of decision agreement. Method - Using Social Judgment Theory method, this study examined how 45 experienced occupational therapy driver assessors from the UK, Australia and New Zealand made fitness-to-drive recommendations for a series of 64 case scenarios. Participants completed the task on a dedicated website, and data were analysed using discriminant function analysis and an intraclass correlation coefficient. Results - Accounting for 87% of the variance, the cues central to the fitness-to-drive recommendations made by assessors are the client’s physical skills, cognitive and perceptual skills, road law craft skills, vehicle handling skills and the number of driving instructor interventions. Agreement (consensus) between fitness-to-drive recommendations was very high: intraclass correlation coefficient = .97, 95% confidence interval .96–.98). Conclusion - Findings can be used by both experienced and novice driver assessors to reflect on and strengthen the fitness-to-drive recommendations made to clients.This work was supported by the UK Occupational Therapy Research Foundation, Research Priority Grant scheme, 2012

    A Composite Resilience Index for Road Transport Networks

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    This paper is concerned with the development of a composite index for the resilience of road transport networks under disruptive events. The index employs three resilience characteristics, namely redundancy, vulnerability and mobility. Two different approaches, i.e. equal weighting and principal component analysis, are adopted to conduct the aggregation. In addition, the impact of the availability of real-time travel information for travellers on the three resilience characteristics and the composite resilience index is described. The application of the index on a synthetic road transport network of Delft city (Netherlands) shows that it responds well to traffic load changes and supply variations. The composite resilience index could be of use in various ways including supporting decision makers in understanding the dynamic nature of resilience under different disruptive events, highlighting weaknesses in the network and in assisting future planning to mitigate the impacts of disruptive events

    Examining the Relationships among the Coaching Climate, Life Skills Development and Well-Being in Sport

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    Using Benson and Saito's framework for positive youth development, we investigated the relationships between the coaching climate, young people's perceived life skills development within sport, and their psychological well-being. British youth sport participants (N=326, Mage=13.81, range=11–18 years) completed a survey assessing the coaching climate, participants' perceived life skills development (teamwork, goal setting, time management, emotional skills, interpersonal communication, social skills, leadership, and problem solving and decision making) and psychological well-being (self-esteem, positive affect, and satisfaction with life). In all analyses, the coaching climate was positively related to young peoples' perceived development of life skills within sport and their psychological well-being. Total life skills development (a summative score of all eight life skills scores) was positively related to all three psychological well-being indicators – providing support for the "pile-up" effect – and partially mediated the relationships between the coaching climate and participants' psychological well-being. Interpretation of the results indicated that coaches should foster the development of multiple life skills in youth sport participants, as they are associated with participants' psychological well-being. One way this can be achieved is through autonomy-supportive coaching behaviours

    Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs Regarding Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening among Cambodian, Laotian, Thai, and Tongan Women

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    Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI) groups have low rates of breast and cervical cancer screening. This study examined knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KABs) regarding breast and cervical cancer on AAPI women. A cross-sectional survey of 1,808 AAPI women was included. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests were provided and 55.3%, 68.6%, and 71.9% had received mammograms, clinical breast exam, and Pap smears, respectively. KABs on breast and cervical cancer varied between the four ethnic groups. Understanding the KABs toward cancer screening among AAPI women holds promise for identifying barriers to early detection and could aid in the creation of interventions

    Bed of roses? The role of garden space in older people’s well-being

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    The purpose of this research was to investigate the role of outdoor housing environment (OHE), including front and back gardens, yards, courtyards, patios and balconies, in older people’s well-being. Descriptions of their OHEs were collected from 2558 individuals living in 526 distinct housing developments using a postal questionnaire. A large range of background variables were measured, mainly through the questionnaire. Characteristics of respondents’ immediate neighbourhood environments were measured from digital maps and satellite/bird’s-eye images. Among the OHE variables, statistically significant predictors of well-being were having one’s own patio (as opposed to shared or none), and having a green view from one’s living area (a positive effect on well-being). The authors conclude that it would be beneficial for older people’s housing to include private patio space, where possible, as well as a large amount of greenery. The research supports the claim that older people benefit from green space as much by viewing it from inside as spending time in it. If older people have no or very little garden space, a green street environment is likely to increase their well-being, especially if it can be seen from their home

    Association between psychosomatic health symptoms and common mental illness in Ghanaian adolescents: Age and gender as potential moderators

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    Little is known about the role of age and gender in the association between psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness in Ghanaian adolescents. This cross-sectional study examined age and gender as moderators between psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness using data from a school-based survey ( N = 770). Males reported higher psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness, while younger adolescents reported higher common mental illness only. Psychosomatic symptoms were positively associated with common mental illness, but age and gender did not moderate this association. Interventions aimed at reducing the prevalence rate in psychosomatic symptoms are crucial in decreasing common mental illness in Ghanaian adolescents. </jats:p
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