16,503 research outputs found

    Slow relaxation in the Ising model on a small-world network with strong long-range interactions

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    We consider the Ising model on a small-world network, where the long-range interaction strength J2J_2 is in general different from the local interaction strength J1J_1, and examine its relaxation behaviors as well as phase transitions. As J2/J1J_2/J_1 is raised from zero, the critical temperature also increases, manifesting contributions of long-range interactions to ordering. However, it becomes saturated eventually at large values of J2/J1J_2/J_1 and the system is found to display very slow relaxation, revealing that ordering dynamics is inhibited rather than facilitated by strong long-range interactions. To circumvent this problem, we propose a modified updating algorithm in Monte Carlo simulations, assisting the system to reach equilibrium quickly.Comment: 5 pages, 5 figure

    Uric acid enhances longevity and endurance and protects the brain against ischemia

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    Among mammals, there is a positive correlation between serum uric acid (UA) levels and life span. Humans have high levels of UA because they lack a functional urate oxidase (UOX) enzyme that is present in shorter lived mammals. Here, we show that male and female mice with UOX haploinsufficiency exhibit an age-related elevation of UA levels, and that the life span of female but not male UOX+/− mice is significantly increased compared to wild-type mice. Serum UA levels are elevated in response to treadmill exercise in UOX+/− mice, but not wild-type mice, and the endurance of the UOX+/− mice is significantly greater than wild-type mice. UOX+/− mice exhibit elevated levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, reduced brain damage and improved functional outcome in a model of focal ischemic stroke. Levels of oxidative protein nitration and lipid peroxidation are reduced in muscle and brain tissues of UOX+/− mice under conditions of metabolic and oxidative stress (running in the case of muscle and ischemia in the case of the brain), consistent with prior evidence that UA can scavenge peroxynitrite and hydroxyl radical. Our findings reveal roles for UA in life span determination, endurance and adaptive responses to brain injury, and suggest novel approaches for protecting cells against injury and for optimizing physical performance.España, Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte EX2009–091

    Correlated Photons from Collective Excitations of Three-Level Atomic Ensemble

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    We systematically study the interaction between two quantized optical fields and a cyclic atomic ensemble driven by a classic optical field. This so-called atomic cyclic ensemble consists of three-level atoms with Delta-type transitions due to the symmetry breaking, which can also be implemented in the superconducting quantum circuit by Yu-xi Liu et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 087001 (2005)]. We explore the dynamic mechanisms to creating the quantum entanglements among photon states, and between photons and atomic collective excitations by the coherent manipulation of the atom-photon system. It is shown that the quantum information can be completely transferred from one quantized optical mode to another, and the quantum information carried by the two quantized optical fields can be stored in the collective modes of this atomic ensemble by adiabatically controlling the classic field Rabi frequencies.Comment: 10 pages, 2 figure

    Many-body Effects in Angle-resolved Photoemission: Quasiparticle Energy and Lifetime of a Mo(110) Surface State

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    In a high-resolution photoemission study of a Mo(110) surface state various contributions to the measured width and energy of the quasiparticle peak are investigated. Electron-phonon coupling, electron-electron interactions and scattering from defects are all identified mechanisms responsible for the finite lifetime of a valence photo-hole. The electron-phonon induced mass enhancement and rapid change of the photo-hole lifetime near the Fermi level are observed for the first time.Comment: RevTEX, 4 pages, 4 figures, to be published in PR

    Quasiparticle Interference on the Surface of Topological Crystalline Insulator Pb(1-x)Sn(x)Se

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    Topological crystalline insulators represent a novel topological phase of matter in which the surface states are protected by discrete point group-symmetries of the underlying lattice. Rock-salt lead-tin-selenide alloy is one possible realization of this phase which undergoes a topological phase transition upon changing the lead content. We used scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to probe the surface states on (001) Pb1−x_{1-x}Snx_{x}Se in the topologically non-trivial (x=0.23) and topologically trivial (x=0) phases. We observed quasiparticle interference with STM on the surface of the topological crystalline insulator and demonstrated that the measured interference can be understood from ARPES studies and a simple band structure model. Furthermore, our findings support the fact that Pb0.77_{0.77}Sn0.23_{0.23}Se and PbSe have different topological nature.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figure

    Anisotropy of Transverse Sound in the Heavy-Fermion Superconductor UPt_3

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    We report the first measurements of the attenuation of ultrasound in the basal plane of superconducting UPt_3. Transverse sound propagating along the b axis shows a marked anisotropy in its temperature dependence when the polarization is rotated in and out of the basal plane. For polarization in the basal plane the attenuation varies linearly with temperature down to 35 mK and the slope scales as the square of the frequency. Our results appear to indicate the presence of an additional attenuation mechanism when compared with recent theories of anisotropic superconductors in the dirty limit

    Giant Magnetoelectric Effect in a Multiferroic Material with a High Ferroelectric Transition Temperature

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    We present a unique example of giant magnetoelectric effect in a conventional multiferroic HoMnO3, where polarization is very large (~56 mC/m2) and the ferroelectric transition temperature is higher than the magnetic ordering temperature by an order. We attribute the uniqueness of the giant magnetoelectric effect to the ferroelectricity induced entirely by the off-center displacement of rare earth ions with large magnetic moments. This finding suggests a new avenue to design multiferroics with large polarization and higher ferroelectric transition temperature as well as large magnetoelectric effects

    Development of Navigation Control Algorithm for AGV Using D* Search Algorithm

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    In this paper, we present a navigation control algorithm for Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGV) that move in industrial environments including static and moving obstacles using D* algorithm. This algorithm has ability to get paths planning in unknown, partially known and changing environments efficiently. To apply the D* search algorithm, the grid map represent the known environment is generated. By using the laser scanner LMS-151 and laser navigation sensor NAV-200, the grid map is updated according to the changing of environment and obstacles. When the AGV finds some new map information such as new unknown obstacles, it adds the information to its map and re-plans a new shortest path from its current coordinates to the given goal coordinates. It repeats the process until it reaches the goal coordinates. This algorithm is verified through simulation and experiment. The simulation and experimental results show that the algorithm can be used to move the AGV successfully to reach the goal position while it avoids unknown moving and static obstacles. [Keywords— navigation control algorithm; Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGV); D* search algorithm

    Facet Formation in the Negative Quenched Kardar-Parisi-Zhang Equation

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    The quenched Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (QKPZ) equation with negative non-linear term shows a first order pinning-depinning (PD) transition as the driving force FF is varied. We study the substrate-tilt dependence of the dynamic transition properties in 1+1 dimensions. At the PD transition, the pinned surfaces form a facet with a characteristic slope scs_c as long as the substrate-tilt mm is less than scs_c. When m<scm<s_c, the transition is discontinuous and the critical value of the driving force Fc(m)F_c(m) is independent of mm, while the transition is continuous and Fc(m)F_c(m) increases with mm when m>scm>s_c. We explain these features from a pinning mechanism involving a localized pinning center and the self-organized facet formation.Comment: 4 pages, source TeX file and 7 PS figures are tarred and compressed via uufile
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