10 research outputs found

    Abstract kinetic equations with positive collision operators

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    We consider "forward-backward" parabolic equations in the abstract form Jdψ/dx+Lψ=0Jd \psi / d x + L \psi = 0, 0<x<τ 0< x < \tau \leq \infty, where JJ and LL are operators in a Hilbert space HH such that J=J=J1J=J^*=J^{-1}, L=L0L=L^* \geq 0, and kerL=0\ker L = 0. The following theorem is proved: if the operator B=JLB=JL is similar to a self-adjoint operator, then associated half-range boundary problems have unique solutions. We apply this theorem to corresponding nonhomogeneous equations, to the time-independent Fokker-Plank equation μψx(x,μ)=b(μ)2ψμ2(x,μ) \mu \frac {\partial \psi}{\partial x} (x,\mu) = b(\mu) \frac {\partial^2 \psi}{\partial \mu^2} (x, \mu), 0<x<τ 0<x<\tau, μR \mu \in \R, as well as to other parabolic equations of the "forward-backward" type. The abstract kinetic equation Tdψ/dx=Aψ(x)+f(x) T d \psi/dx = - A \psi (x) + f(x), where T=TT=T^* is injective and AA satisfies a certain positivity assumption, is considered also.Comment: 20 pages, LaTeX2e, version 2, references have been added, changes in the introductio

    Scattering theory for Klein-Gordon equations with non-positive energy

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    We study the scattering theory for charged Klein-Gordon equations: \{{array}{l} (\p_{t}- \i v(x))^{2}\phi(t,x) \epsilon^{2}(x, D_{x})\phi(t,x)=0,[2mm] \phi(0, x)= f_{0}, [2mm] \i^{-1} \p_{t}\phi(0, x)= f_{1}, {array}. where: \epsilon^{2}(x, D_{x})= \sum_{1\leq j, k\leq n}(\p_{x_{j}} \i b_{j}(x))A^{jk}(x)(\p_{x_{k}} \i b_{k}(x))+ m^{2}(x), describing a Klein-Gordon field minimally coupled to an external electromagnetic field described by the electric potential v(x)v(x) and magnetic potential b(x)\vec{b}(x). The flow of the Klein-Gordon equation preserves the energy: h[f, f]:= \int_{\rr^{n}}\bar{f}_{1}(x) f_{1}(x)+ \bar{f}_{0}(x)\epsilon^{2}(x, D_{x})f_{0}(x) - \bar{f}_{0}(x) v^{2}(x) f_{0}(x) \d x. We consider the situation when the energy is not positive. In this case the flow cannot be written as a unitary group on a Hilbert space, and the Klein-Gordon equation may have complex eigenfrequencies. Using the theory of definitizable operators on Krein spaces and time-dependent methods, we prove the existence and completeness of wave operators, both in the short- and long-range cases. The range of the wave operators are characterized in terms of the spectral theory of the generator, as in the usual Hilbert space case

    A functional model, eigenvalues, and finite singular critical points for indefinite Sturm-Liouville operators

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    Eigenvalues in the essential spectrum of a weighted Sturm-Liouville operator are studied under the assumption that the weight function has one turning point. An abstract approach to the problem is given via a functional model for indefinite Sturm-Liouville operators. Algebraic multiplicities of eigenvalues are obtained. Also, operators with finite singular critical points are considered.Comment: 38 pages, Proposition 2.2 and its proof corrected, Remarks 2.5, 3.4, and 3.12 extended, details added in subsections 2.3 and 4.2, section 6 rearranged, typos corrected, references adde

    Model Based Testing with Labelled Transition Systems

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    Model based testing is one of the promising technologies to meet the challenges imposed on software testing. In model based testing an implementation under test is tested for compliance with a model that describes the required behaviour of the implementation. This tutorial chapter describes a model based testing theory where models are expressed as labelled transition systems, and compliance is defined with the ‘ioco’ implementation relation. The ioco-testing theory, on the one hand, provides a sound and well-defined foundation for labelled transition system testing, having its roots in the theoretical area of testing equivalences and refusal testing. On the other hand, it has proved to be a practical basis for several model based test generation tools and applications. Definitions, underlying assumptions, an algorithm, properties, and several examples of the ioco-testing theory are discussed, involving specifications, implementations, tests, the ioco implementation relation and some of its variants, a test generation algorithm, and the soundness and exhaustiveness of this algorithm