61 research outputs found

    Pure phase-locking of beta/gamma oscillation contributes to the N30 frontal component of somatosensory evoked potentials

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    BACKGROUND: Evoked potentials have been proposed to result from phase-locking of electroencephalographic (EEG) activities within specific frequency bands. However, the respective contribution of phasic activity and phase resetting of ongoing EEG oscillation remains largely debated. We here applied the EEGlab procedure in order to quantify the contribution of electroencephalographic oscillation in the generation of the frontal N30 component of the somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) triggered by median nerve electrical stimulation at the wrist. Power spectrum and intertrial coherence analysis were performed on EEG recordings in relation to median nerve stimulation. RESULTS: The frontal N30 component was accompanied by a significant phase-locking of beta/gamma oscillation (25-35 Hz) and to a lesser extent of 80 Hz oscillation. After the selection in each subject of the trials for which the power spectrum amplitude remained unchanged, we found pure phase-locking of beta/gamma oscillation (25-35 Hz) peaking about 30 ms after the stimulation. Transition across trials from uniform to normal phase distribution revealed temporal phase reorganization of ongoing 30 Hz EEG oscillations in relation to stimulation. In a proportion of trials, this phase-locking was accompanied by a spectral power increase peaking in the 30 Hz frequency band. This corresponds to the complex situation of 'phase-locking with enhancement' in which the distinction between the contribution of phasic neural event versus EEG phase resetting is hazardous. CONCLUSION: The identification of a pure phase-locking in a large proportion of the SEP trials reinforces the contribution of the oscillatory model for the physiological correlates of the frontal N30. This may imply that ongoing EEG rhythms, such as beta/gamma oscillation, are involved in somatosensory information processing.Comparative StudyJournal ArticleResearch Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishe

    DUX4c Is Up-Regulated in FSHD. It Induces the MYF5 Protein and Human Myoblast Proliferation

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    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a dominant disease linked to contractions of the D4Z4 repeat array in 4q35. We have previously identified a double homeobox gene (DUX4) within each D4Z4 unit that encodes a transcription factor expressed in FSHD but not control myoblasts. DUX4 and its target genes contribute to the global dysregulation of gene expression observed in FSHD. We have now characterized the homologous DUX4c gene mapped 42 kb centromeric of the D4Z4 repeat array. It encodes a 47-kDa protein with a double homeodomain identical to DUX4 but divergent in the carboxyl-terminal region. DUX4c was detected in primary myoblast extracts by Western blot with a specific antiserum, and was induced upon differentiation. The protein was increased about 2-fold in FSHD versus control myotubes but reached 2-10-fold induction in FSHD muscle biopsies. We have shown by Western blot and by a DNA-binding assay that DUX4c over-expression induced the MYF5 myogenic regulator and its DNA-binding activity. DUX4c might stabilize the MYF5 protein as we detected their interaction by co-immunoprecipitation. In keeping with the known role of Myf5 in myoblast accumulation during mouse muscle regeneration DUX4c over-expression activated proliferation of human primary myoblasts and inhibited their differentiation. Altogether, these results suggested that DUX4c could be involved in muscle regeneration and that changes in its expression could contribute to the FSHD pathology

    Contribution à l'analyse des signaux cérébraux liés à la navigation virtuelle en microgravité

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    Doctorat en Sciences de la motricitéinfo:eu-repo/semantics/nonPublishe

    Extrajudicial mediation for business external conflicts

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    En Europe, comme dans le monde entier, les modes amiables de rĂšglement des diffĂ©rends (MARD) sont largement encouragĂ©s par les pouvoirs publics. Oscillants entre tradition et modernitĂ©, les MARD constituent en France une matiĂšre Ă©volutive et en devenir. Parmi eux, la mĂ©diation, qui apparaĂźt comme le mode phare de la justice du XXIe siĂšcle. Celle-ci peut se dĂ©finir comme tout processus structurĂ© dans lequel deux ou plusieurs parties tentent par elles-mĂȘmes, avec l'aide d'un mĂ©diateur, de parvenir Ă  un accord pour rĂ©soudre leur diffĂ©rend. OmniprĂ©sente dans tous les domaines, la mĂ©diation n’échappe pas Ă  la sphĂšre de l’entreprise, terrain propice au contentieux, dans lequel elle prĂ©sente de nombreux avantages en pleine adĂ©quation avec les impĂ©ratifs propres Ă  la vie des affaires. Rapide, simple et confidentielle, elle permet avant tout de prĂ©server, autant que possible, les liens commerciaux dans un environnement hautement concurrentiel. Parmi ses attributs, reste Ă  savoir si la mĂ©diation extrajudiciaire apporte aux justiciables des garanties suffisantes de bonne justice. PrĂ©sentĂ©e comme la panacĂ©e, la mĂ©diation doit effectivement faire ses preuves pour pouvoir ĂȘtre considĂ©rĂ©e comme une forme de justice. La prĂ©sente Ă©tude met en Ă©vidence les faiblesses de la mĂ©diation extrajudiciaire des diffĂ©rends externes de l’entreprise et propose des pistes de rĂ©flexion pour en assurer une meilleure qualitĂ©.Public authorities largely promote Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) methods not only in Europe but around the world. In France, ADR can be seen as a promising and evolving matter that oscillates between tradition and modernity. Among these methods, mediation appears as the flagship tool of 21st century justice. Mediation can be defined as any structured process in which two or more parties try, with the help of a mediator, to reach an agreement to settle their dispute by themselves. Widespread in all domains, mediation naturally belongs to the business sphere, which is a breeding ground for litigation. It offers many advantages perfectly matching the requirements of business life. Fast, simple and confidential, it ensures that trade relations are preserved as much as possible in a highly competitive environment. Considering its various characteristics, it raises the question of whether extrajudicial mediation provides the litigants with guarantees such as that of good justice. Presented as the panacea, mediation has to prove itself in order to be considered as a form of justice. This study highlights the weaknesses of extrajudicial mediation for business external disputes and suggests ways of improving its quality

    Contribution à l'analyse des signaux cérébraux liés à la navigation virtuelle en microgravité

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    Doctorat en Sciences de la motricitéinfo:eu-repo/semantics/nonPublishe

    EEG dynamics and neural generators of psychological flow during one tightrope performance

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    Psychological “flow” emerges from a goal requiring action, and a match between skills and challenge. Using high-density electroencephalographic (EEG) recording, we quantified the neural generators characterizing psychological “flow” compared to a mindful “stress” state during a professional tightrope performance. Applying swLORETA based on self-reported mental states revealed the right superior temporal gyrus (BA38), right globus pallidus, and putamen as generators of delta, alpha, and beta oscillations, respectively, when comparing “flow” versus “stress”. Comparison of “stress” versus “flow” identified the middle temporal gyrus (BA39) as the delta generator, and the medial frontal gyrus (BA10) as the alpha and beta generator. These results support that “flow” emergence required transient hypo-frontality. Applying swLORETA on the motor command represented by the tibialis anterior EMG burst identified the ipsilateral cerebellum and contralateral sensorimotor cortex in association with on-line control exerted during both “flow” and “stress”, while the basal ganglia was identified only during “flow”.SCOPUS: ar.jinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishe

    Ultrafast and multiplexed bacteriophage susceptibility testing by surface plasmon resonance and phase imaging of immobilized phage microarrays

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    International audienceIn the context of bacteriophage (phage) therapy, there is an urgent need for a method permitting multiplexed, parallel phage susceptibility testing (PST) prior to formulation of personalized phage cocktails for administration to patients suffering from antimicrobial-resistant bacterial infections.Methods based on surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) and phase imaging were demonstrated as candidates for very rapid (<2 h) PST in broth phase. Biosensing layers composed of arrays of phages 44AHJD, P68, and gh-1 were covalently immobilized on the surface of an SPRi prism and exposed to liquid culture of either Pseudomonas putida or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (i.e., either the phages' host or non-host bacteria). Monitoring of reflectivity reveals susceptibility of the challenge bacteria to the immobilized phage strains. Investigation of phase imaging of lytic replication of gh-1 demonstrates PST at the single-cell scale, without requiring phage immobilization. SPRi sensorgrams show that on-target regions increase in reflectivity more slowly, stabilizing later and to a lower level compared to off-target regions. Phage susceptibility can be revealed in as little as 30 minutes in both the SPRi and phase imaging methods

    EEG Spectral Generators Involved in Motor Imagery: A swLORETA Study

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    In order to characterize the neural generators of the brain oscillations related to motor imagery (MI), we investigated the cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar localizations of their respective electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral power and phase locking modulations. The MI task consisted in throwing a ball with the dominant upper limb while in a standing posture, within an ecological virtual reality (VR) environment (tennis court). The MI was triggered by the visual cues common to the control condition, during which the participant remained mentally passive. As previously developed, our paradigm considers the confounding problem that the reference condition allows two complementary analyses: one which uses the baseline before the occurrence of the visual cues in the MI and control resting conditions respectively; and the other which compares the analog periods between the MI and the control resting-state conditions. We demonstrate that MI activates specific, complex brain networks for the power and phase modulations of the EEG oscillations. An early (225 ms) delta phase-locking related to MI was generated in the thalamus and cerebellum and was followed (480 ms) by phase-locking in theta and alpha oscillations, generated in specific cortical areas and the cerebellum. Phase-locking preceded the power modulations (mainly alpha–beta ERD), whose cortical generators were situated in the frontal BA45, BA11, BA10, central BA6, lateral BA13, and posterior cortex BA2. Cerebellar-thalamic involvement through phase-locking is discussed as an underlying mechanism for recruiting at later stages the cortical areas involved in a cognitive role during MI

    Connexin-Based Channel Activity Is Not Specifically Altered by Hepatocarcinogenic Chemicals

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    Connexin-based channels play key roles in cellular communication and can be affected by deleterious chemicals. In this study, the effects of various genotoxic carcinogenic compounds, non-genotoxic carcinogenic compounds and non-carcinogenic compounds on the expression and functionality of connexin-based channels, both gap junctions and connexin hemichannels, were investigated in human hepatoma HepaRG cell cultures. Expression of connexin26, connexin32, and connexin43 was evaluated by means of real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, immunoblot analysis and in situ immunostaining. Gap junction functionality was assessed via a scrape loading/dye transfer assay. Opening of connexin hemichannels was monitored by measuring extracellular release of adenosine triphosphate. It was found that both genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogenic compounds negatively affect connexin32 expression. However, no specific effects related to chemical type were observed at gap junction or connexin hemichannel functionality level
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