1,171 research outputs found

    Evolutionary design of a full-envelope full-authority flight control system for an unstable high-performance aircraft

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    The use of an evolutionary algorithm in the framework of H1 control theory is being considered as a means for synthesizing controller gains that minimize a weighted combination of the infinite norm of the sensitivity function (for disturbance attenuation requirements) and complementary sensitivity function (for robust stability requirements) at the same time. The case study deals with a complete full-authority longitudinal control system for an unstable high-performance jet aircraft featuring (i) a stability and control augmentation system and (ii) autopilot functions (speed and altitude hold). Constraints on closed-loop response are enforced, that representing typical requirements on airplane handling qualities, that makes the control law synthesis process more demanding. Gain scheduling is required, in order to obtain satisfactory performance over the whole flight envelope, so that the synthesis is performed at different reference trim conditions, for several values of the dynamic pressure, used as the scheduling parameter. Nonetheless, the dynamic behaviour of the aircraft may exhibit significant variations when flying at different altitudes, even for the same value of the dynamic pressure, so that a trade-off is required between different feasible controllers synthesized at different altitudes for a given equivalent airspeed. A multiobjective search is thus considered for the determination of the best suited solution to be introduced in the scheduling of the control law. The obtained results are then tested on a longitudinal non-linear model of the aircraft

    Influence of micro-notches on the fatigue strength and crack propagation of unfilled and short carbon fiber reinforced PEEK

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    Short carbon fiber reinforced (SCFR) PEEK is a highly attractive material for lightweight structures; improving knowledge about the influence of local imperfections on its fatigue behavior is essential for the design of real components. To this aim, fatigue strength and crack propagation of two grades of SCFR PEEK and neat matrix were investigated by testing at different stress levels specimens with a micro-notch consisting of a small blind hole (range diameter 0.1–1 mm). Overall, the presence of a micro-notch resulted in a decrease of fatigue strength compared to un-notched condition, but with different sensitivity and crack propagation patterns; while a higher fiber volume fraction enhanced fatigue strength and resistance to crack propagation, the combination of a lower fiber content and inclusion of additive particles had a negative effect. Crack propagation in the notched region was also evaluated. The average values of Paris' law exponential coefficients were similar and within the range of literature values, without apparent correlation with reinforcement type. Preliminary investigations in the presence of the smallest micro-notches seem to indicate the presence of a threshold size below which the influence of a small notch is comparable with that of material inherent defects, but further testing is necessary

    First report of a Late Jurassic lizard-like footprint (Asturias, Spain)

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    This report describes an isolated footprint preserved as a natural cast (convex hyporelief) from the Lastres Fm. (Late Jurassic) of northern Spain. The track consists of a small isolated pentadactyl ectaxonic right manus footprint. It is very asymmetric, plantigrade, with digits and palm deeply marked on the substrate. Digit IV is the longest, digits II and I are nearly equal in length and only a little shorter than III and IV. The footprint morphology is typical of a lizard – like or “lacertoid” track .The general outline of the footprint, the width to length ratio approximately equal to 1, the marked plantigrady and the substantial similarity in length of digits IV-I are coherent with a Rhynchosauroidea manual print. The global record of Rhynchosauroides ichnogenus shows that this specimen represents the latest occurrence of the ichnogenus. The most probable trackmaker was possibly a rhyncocephalian reptile.Se describe una huella de mano aislada, preservada como contramolde natural (hiporrelieve convexo) de la Formacion Lastres (Jurasico Superior) del N de Espana. La icnita, aislada, pentadactila, ectaxonica y de pequeno tamano, es atribuida a una mano derecha. Es muy asimetrica y plantigrada, con los dedos y la palma profundamente impresos en el sustrato. El dedo IV es el mas largo, mientras que el II y el I son casi iguales en longitud y solamente un poco mas cortos que el III y el IV. La morfologia de la huella es tipica de un lagarto o “lacertoide”. El contorno de la huella, la relacion longitud/anchura en torno a 1, la longitud similar de los dedos I-IV y el hecho de que sea claramente plantigrada son rasgos coherentes con una huella de mano de un Rhynchosauroidea. El registro global de Rhynchosauroides indica que el ejemplar asturiano representa la evidencia mas reciente de este icnogenero. El autor de la huella fue probablemente un reptil rincocefalo

    Fatigue behavior and cyclic damage of peek short fiber reinforced composites

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    Fatigue strength and failure mechanisms of short fiber reinforced (SFR) PEEK have been investigated in the past by several research groups. However some relevant aspects of the fatigue behavior of these materials, like cyclic creep and fatigue damage accumulation and modeling, have not been studied yet, in particular in presence of both fillers and short fibers as reinforcement. In the present research these aspects were considered by carrying out uni-axial fatigue tests in load control (cycle ratio R = 0) on neat PEEK and PEEK based composites reinforced either with short carbon fibers only or with addition of fillers (graphite and PTFE). For each material stress-life curves were obtained and compared. Fatigue fracture surfaces were analyzed to identify failure mechanisms in presence of different reinforcement types. The evolution of cyclic creep strain was also monitored as a function of the number of cycles, thus allowing investigation on the correlation between cyclic creep parameters and fatigue life. The evolution of cyclic damage with loading cycles was then compared by defining a damage parameter related to the specimen stiffness reduction observed during the tests. Progressive cyclic damage evolution of short fiber reinforced PEEK composites presented significantly different patterns depending on applied stress level and on the presence of different reinforcement typologies. In order to reproduce the different fatigue damage kinetics and stages of progressive damage accumulation observed experimentally, a cyclic damage model was finally developed and implemented into a finite element code by which a satisfactory agreement between numerical prediction and experimental data at different stress levels for each examined material

    Generic Encodings of Constructor Rewriting Systems

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    Rewriting is a formalism widely used in computer science and mathematical logic. The classical formalism has been extended, in the context of functional languages, with an order over the rules and, in the context of rewrite based languages, with the negation over patterns. We propose in this paper a concise and clear algorithm computing the difference over patterns which can be used to define generic encodings of constructor term rewriting systems with negation and order into classical term rewriting systems. As a direct consequence, established methods used for term rewriting systems can be applied to analyze properties of the extended systems. The approach can also be seen as a generic compiler which targets any language providing basic pattern matching primitives. The formalism provides also a new method for deciding if a set of patterns subsumes a given pattern and thus, for checking the presence of useless patterns or the completeness of a set of patterns.Comment: Added appendix with proofs and extended example

    Non-modal voice synthesis by low-dimensional physical models

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    The synthesis of different voice qualities by means of a low-dimensional glottal model is discussed. The glottal model is based on a one-mass model provided with a number of enhancements that make it suitable to the aim of the study. The simulation of modal and non-modal phonatory regimes is discussed. Both symmetric and nonsymmetric configurations are explored. The class of models under consideration is shown to be able to reproduce a broad range of phonation styles and to provide interesting control properties

    Left ventricular diastolic function in normotensive adolescents with different genetic risk of hypertension.

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    Abnormalities of the diastolic function of the left ventricle are the first sign of cardiac involvement in arterial hypertension. We have studied the diastolic function in a group of normotensive adolescents with confirmed family history of hypertension. M-mode echocardiography was performed in 86 normotensive males aged 14-19 years: 41 sons of at least one hypertensive parent (SHT) and 45 sons of normotensive parents (SNT). Cross-sectional area of the left ventricle and left ventricular (LV) mass index were significantly greater in the SHT than in the SNT group (10.05 +/- 1.84 vs. 8.9 +/- 1.56 cm/m2, p less than 0.01 and 129.3 +/- 296.3 vs. 109.23 +/- 25.7 g/m2, p less than 0.002, respectively). No significant difference between the two groups was observed in the indices of left ventricular diastolic function, except for mitral valve opening rate (463.51 +/- 90.45 in SHT vs. 416.71 +/- 78.84 mm/s in SNT; p less than 0.02). From the analysis of the subgroup of adolescents having left ventricular mass greater than the upper normal value, we observed that they showed mean time of rapid filling significantly longer than SNT: this could represent an early marker of the pathological character of such hypertrophy. Our results suggest that the higher LV mass observed in the SHT is not associated with chamber and myocardial stiffness abnormalities

    Interaction of reed and acoustic resonator in clarinetlike systems

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    Sound emergence in clarinetlike instruments is investigated in terms of instability of the static regime. Various models of reed-bore coupling are considered, from the pioneering work of Wilson and Beavers ["Operating modes of the clarinet", J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 56, 653--658 (1974)] to more recent modeling including viscothermal bore losses and vena contracta at the reed inlet. The pressure threshold above which these models may oscillate as well as the frequency of oscillation at threshold are calculated. In addition to Wilson and Beavers' previous conclusions concerning the role of the reed damping in the selection of the register the instrument will play on, the influence of the reed motion induced flow is also emphasized, particularly its effect on playing frequencies, contributing to reduce discrepancies between Wilson and Beavers' experimental results and theory, despite discrepancies still remain concerning the pressure threshold. Finally, analytical approximations of the oscillating solution based on Fourier series expansion are obtained in the vicinity of the threshold of oscillation. This allows to emphasize the conditions which determine the nature of the bifurcation (direct or inverse) through which the note may emerge, with therefore important consequences on the musical playing performances

    Arm position as a source of error in blood pressure measurement

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    The present study was designed to assess the value of correct positioning of a patient's arm when measuring blood pressure (BP). A total of 181 subjects were examined, 141 hypertensives on treatment, 25 untreated hypertensives, 15 normotensives. All the subjects underwent three BP measurements after a 5-min resting period in supine position. Then two BP readings were recorded in standing position with the arm either positioned by the patient's side or supported passively at patient's heart level. Average systolic BP (SBP) in standing position were 144.6 +/- 20.2 mmHg with the arm at the side and 136.4 +/- 21.1 mmHg with the arm at the heart level (p less than 0.001); average diastolic pressures were 99.0 +/- 12.0 mmHg and 90.2 +/- 12.3 mmHg (p less than 0.001), respectively. A fall in SBP greater than or equal to 20 mmHg from the supine to the upright position was detected in 18.2% of cases when measurement was performed at heart level; such a reduction was inapparent in two-thirds of cases when the arm was placed at the patient's body side. Incorrect positioning of a patient's arm during BP measurements in standing position leads to overestimation of BP values and masks the presence of postural hypotension

    Retrospective analysis of mantle cell lymphoma: experience of the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio dei Linfomi (GISL)

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    Background and Objective. Mantle cell lymphoma is a recently recognized histologic entity with specific biological and clinical features. Clinically, the reported unfavorable outcome of these patients has focused attention on this category of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Design and Methods. The slide specimens of 69 NHL patients, originally classified as Working Formulation (WF) group B and E, were reviewed. The clinical features at presentation, response to therapy, response duration and survival were analyzed in cases reclassified as MCL. The correlation between clinical and histologic characteristics and the final outcome was evaluated. Results. Out of 69 cases, 34 specimens were reclassified as MCL; in 6 patients, previously classified as WF group B, the nodular pattern was confirmed; in 2 instances the blastoid form was recognized. After a median follow-up of 35.7 months, the entire series displayed a median overall survival of 41.2 months; a significantly longer survival was associated with the nodular histologic pattern, IPI score <2, response achievement, and a higher Hb level. The vast majority of patients received anthracycline-containing combination chemotherapy. Complete remission rate was 38.8% and overall response rate was 67.6%; response achievement was significantly influenced only by Hb level. Median response duration was 23.3 months. Interpretation and Conclusions. The present study confirms the unfavorable clinical course of MCL and the possible need for an alternative therapeutic strategy for this NHL category. Therefore, the correct identification of MCL at diagnosis appears of relevance. (C)1998, Ferrata Storti Foundation
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