1,900 research outputs found

    Image Reconstruction Analysis for Positron Emission Tomography with Heterostructured Scintillators

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    The concept of structure engineering has been proposed for exploring the next generation of radiation detectors with improved performance. A TOF-PET geometry with heterostructured scintillators with a pixel size of 3.0x3.1x15 mm3 was simulated using Monte Carlo. The heterostructures consisted of alternating layers of BGO as a dense material with high stopping power and plastic (EJ232) as a fast light emitter. The detector time resolution was calculated as a function of the deposited and shared energy in both materials on an event-by-event basis. While sensitivity was reduced to 32% for 100 μm thick plastic layers and 52% for 50 μm, the CTR distribution improved to 204±49 ps and 220±41 ps respectively, compared to 276 ps that we considered for bulk BGO. The complex distribution of timing resolutions was accounted for in the reconstruction. We divided the events into three groups based on their CTR and modeled them with different Gaussian TOF kernels. On a NEMA IQ phantom, the heterostructures had better contrast recovery in early iterations. On the other hand, BGO achieved a better contrast to noise ratio (CNR) after the 15th iteration due to the higher sensitivity. The developed simulation and reconstruction methods constitute new tools for evaluating different detector designs with complex time responses

    Characterization studies of Silicon Photomultipliers and crystals matrices for a novel time of flight PET detector

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    This paper describes the characterization of crystal matrices and silicon photomultiplier arrays for a novel Positron Emission Tomography (PET) detector, namely the external plate of the EndoTOFPET-US system. The EndoTOFPET-US collaboration aims to integrate Time-Of-Flight PET with ultrasound endoscopy in a novel multimodal device, capable to support the development of new biomarkers for prostate and pancreatic tumors. The detector consists in two parts: a PET head mounted on an ultrasound probe and an external PET plate. The challenging goal of 1 mm spatial resolution for the PET image requires a detector with small crystal size, and therefore high channel density: 4096 LYSO crystals individually readout by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) make up the external plate. The quality and properties of these components must be assessed before the assembly. The dark count rate, gain, breakdown voltage and correlated noise of the SiPMs are measured, while the LYSO crystals are evaluated in terms of light yield and energy resolution. In order to effectively reduce the noise in the PET image, high time resolution for the gamma detection is mandatory. The Coincidence Time Resolution (CTR) of all the SiPMs assembled with crystals is measured, and results show a value close to the demanding goal of 200 ps FWHM. The light output is evaluated for every channel for a preliminary detector calibration, showing an average of about 1800 pixels fired on the SiPM for a 511 keV interaction. Finally, the average energy resolution at 511 keV is about 13 %, enough for effective Compton rejection.Comment: 12 pages, 31 figure

    Improvement of several properties of lead tungstate crystals with different doping ions

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    A very good radiation resistance of Lead Tungstate crystals is mandatory for their use in the high precision electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment at LHC. Since the beginning of 1996 we have organised systematic investigations of the parameters influencing the radiation hardness of this crystal. Two classes of parameters have been particularly studied, the first one related to the control of the stoichiometry and structure associated defects, the second one connected with the suppression and the charge compensation of existing defects with different kinds of doping ions. This paper reports about the second part of this study and complements a first paper where the role of the stoichiometry was already discussed. Results of tests are given on a significant statistical sample of full size crystals ( 23cm) which show a considerable improvement in the optical properties and the radiation resistance of appropriately doped crystals

    Concept development of an on-chip PET system.

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    BACKGROUND Organs-on-Chips (OOCs), microdevices mimicking in vivo organs, find growing applications in disease modeling and drug discovery. With the increasing number of uses comes a strong demand for imaging capabilities of OOCs as monitoring physiologic processes within OOCs is vital for the continuous improvement of this technology. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) would be ideal for OOC imaging, however, current PET systems are insufficient for this task due to their inadequate spatial resolution. In this work, we propose the concept of an On-Chip PET system capable of imaging OOCs and optimize its design using a Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS). MATERIAL AND METHODS The proposed system consists of four detectors arranged around the OOC device. Each detector is made of two monolithic LYSO crystals and covered with Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) on multiple surfaces. We use a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) trained with data from a MCS to predict the first gamma-ray interaction position inside the detector from the light patterns that are recorded by the SiPMs on the detector's surfaces. RESULTS The CNN achieves a mean average prediction error of 0.80 mm in the best configuration. The proposed system achieves a sensitivity of 34.81% for 13 mm thick crystals and does not show a prediction degradation near the boundaries of the detector. We use the trained network to reconstruct an image of a grid of 21 point sources spread across the field-of-view and obtain a mean spatial resolution of 0.55 mm. We show that 25,000 Line of Responses (LORs) are needed to reconstruct a realistic OOC phantom with adequate image quality. CONCLUSIONS We demonstrate that it is possible to achieve a spatial resolution of almost 0.5 mm in a PET system made of multiple monolithic LYSO crystals by directly predicting the scintillation position from light patterns created with SiPMs. We observe that a thinner crystal performs better than a thicker one, that increasing the SiPM size from 3 mm to 6 mm only slightly decreases the prediction performance, and that certain surfaces encode significantly more information for the scintillation-point prediction than others

    Development of an anthropomorphic breast phantom for combined PET, B-mode ultrasound and elastographic imaging

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    International audienceCombining the advantages of different imaging modalities leads to improved clinical results. For example, ultrasound provides good real-time structural information without any radiation and PET provides sensitive functional information. For the ongoing ClearPEM-Sonic project combining ultrasound and PET for breast imaging, we developed a dual-modality PET/Ultrasound (US) phantom. The phantom reproduces the acoustic and elastic properties of human breast tissue and allows labeling the different tissues in the phantom with different concentrations of FDG. The phantom was imaged with a whole-body PET/CT and with the Supersonic Imagine Aixplorer system. This system allows both B-mode US and shear wave elastographic imaging. US elastography is a new imaging method for displaying the tissue elasticity distribution. It was shown to be useful in breast imaging. We also tested the phantom with static elastography. A 6D magnetic positioning system allows fusing the images obtained with the two modalities. ClearPEM-Sonic is a project of the Crystal Clear Collaboration and the European Centre for Research on Medical Imaging (CERIMED)

    Sub-10 ps time tagging of electromagnetic showers with scintillating glasses and SiPMs

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    The high energy physics community has recently identified an e+e−e^+e^- Higgs factory as one of the next-generation collider experiments, following the completion of the High Luminosity LHC program at CERN.The moderate radiation levels expected at such colliders compared to hadron colliders, enable the use of less radiation tolerant but cheaper technologies for the construction of the particle detectors. This opportunity has triggered a renewed interest in the development of scintillating glasses for the instrumentation of large detector volumes such as homogeneous calorimeters. While the performance of such scintillators remains typically inferior in terms of light yield and radiation tolerance compared to that of many scintillating crystals, substantial progress has been made over the recent years. In this paper we discuss the time resolution of cerium-doped Alkali Free Fluorophosphate scintillating glasses, read-out with silicon photo-multipliers in detecting single charged tracks and at different positions along the longitudinal development of an electromagnetic shower, using respectively 150~GeV pions and 100~GeV electron beams at the CERN SPS H2 beam line. A single sensor time resolution of 14.4~ps and 5-7~ps was measured respectively in the two cases. With such a performance the present technology has the potential to address an emerging requirement of future detectors at collider experiments: measuring the time-of-flight of single charged particles as well as that of neutral particles showering inside the calorimeter and the time development of showers

    Fast emitting nanocomposites for high-resolution ToF-PET imaging based on multicomponent scintillators

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    Time-of-Flight Positron Emission Tomography is a medical imaging technique, based on the detection of two back-to-back {\gamma}-photons generated from radiotracers injected in the body. Its limit is the ability of employed scintillation detectors to discriminate in time the arrival of {\gamma}-pairs, i.e. the coincidence time resolution (CTR). A CTR < 50 ps that would enable fast imaging with ultralow radiotracer dose. Monolithic materials do not have simultaneously the required high light output and fast emission characteristics, thus the concept of scintillating heterostructure is proposed, where the device is made of a dense scintillator coupled to a fast-emitting light material. Here we present a composite polymeric scintillator, whose density has been increased upon addition of hafnium oxide nanoparticles. This enhanced by +300% its scintillation yield, surpassing commercial plastic scintillators. The nanocomposite is coupled to bismuth germanate oxide (BGO) realizing a multilayer scintillator. We observed the energy sharing between its components, which activate the nanocomposite fast emission enabling a net CTR improvement of 25% with respect to monolithic BGO. These results demonstrate that a controlled loading with dense nanomaterials is an excellent strategy to enhance the performance of polymeric scintillators for their use in advanced radiation detection and imaging technologies

    Radiation hardness of Ce-doped sol-gel silica fibers for High Energy Physics applications

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    The results of irradiation tests on Ce-doped sol-gel silica using X- and g-rays up to 10 kGy are reported, in order to investigate the radiation hardness of this material for high energy physics applications. Sol-gel silica fibers with Ce concentrations of 0.0125 mol% and 0.05 mol% are characterized by means of optical absorption and attenuation length measurements before and after irradiation. The two different techniques give comparable results, evidencing the formation of a main broad radiation-induced absorption band, peaking at about 2.2 eV, related to radiation-induced color centers. The results are compared with those obtained on bulk silica. This study reveals that an improvement of the radiation hardness of Ce-doped silica fibers can be achieved by reducing Ce content inside the fiber core, paving the way for further material development

    Two-dimensional perovskite functionalized fiber-type heterostructured scintillators

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    A fiber-type heterostructured scintillator based on bismuth germanate (Bi4Ge3O12) functionalized with the 2D-perovskite butylammonium lead bromide ((BA)2PbBr4) has been fabricated, and its scintillation performance analyzed toward its use for fast timing applications such as time-of-flight Positron Emission Tomography. The pixel shows energy sharing between the matrix and filler component, confirming that the two components are in synergy

    Performance of a spaghetti calorimeter prototype with tungsten absorber and garnet crystal fibres

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    A spaghetti calorimeter (SPACAL) prototype with scintillating crystal fibres was assembled and tested with electron beams of energy from 1 to 5 GeV. The prototype comprised radiation-hard Cerium-doped Gd3_3Al2_2Ga3_3O12_{12} (GAGG:Ce) and Y3_3Al5_5O12_{12} (YAG:Ce) embedded in a pure tungsten absorber. The energy resolution was studied as a function of the incidence angle of the beam and found to be of the order of 10%/E⊕1%10\% / \sqrt{E} \oplus1\%, in line with the LHCb Shashlik technology. The time resolution was measured with metal channel dynodes photomultipliers placed in contact with the fibres or coupled via a light guide, additionally testing an optical tape to glue the components. Time resolution of a few tens of picosecond was achieved for all the energies reaching down to (18.5 ±\pm 0.2) ps at 5 GeV.Comment: 14 pages, 8 figures, published on NIM